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Congo: UN scrambles to better protect civilians in wake of mass rape

The UN's largest peacekeeping force failed to prevent mass rape by Congo rebels in July. Now it's pushing to be more proactive – and more innovative – in its mission to protect civilians.

By Danielle ShapiroContributor / November 13, 2010

A United Nations peacekeeper stands guard in the eastern Congo as a helicopter lands carrying the UN special representative on sexual violence last month. In the wake of its failure to prevent the mass rape of 300 women, girls and boys last July, the UN has been seeking new ways to protect civilians in the 15-year-old conflict.

Katrina Manson/Reuters


Rugari, Congo

A woman working alone on her farm in a remote corner of eastern Congo is usually a worrisome sight. It's there, among her beans and potatoes, sorghum, cassava, or cabbage, that she is especially vulnerable to robbery, abduction, and rape – crimes committed throughout Congo's nearly 15 years of crippling violence.

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"When we see lots of people in the fields, especially lots of women, and lots of people walking, it's a good sign," says Maj. Satyender Singh, a commander for the world's largest United Nations peacekeeping force, known by its acronym, MONUSCO.

"When we don't, then we at MONUSCO get very, very worried," says Singh during one of his battalion's regular farm patrols outside his base in Rugari, a rough, 90-minute drive from the regional capital, Goma.

After being lambasted for failing to prevent the mass rape of more than 300 women, girls, and boys in a July rebel rampage near the town of Luvungi, MONUSCO has been scrambling to find more innovative ways to fulfill its mandate of protecting civilians.

Regular 'farm patrols'

It has renewed its focus on regular farm patrols along with a range of other proactive measures, such as escorts for civilians on market days, temporary teams of UN staff deployed to assess security and make protection recommendations in especially dangerous areas, and regular meetings between peacekeepers and community leaders. Peacekeepers are even passing out UN base phone numbers to locals, as Singh did often during his patrol.

On a warm and humid Tuesday in October, Singh and 15 troops patrolled the lush farmed hills above Rugari.

"Jambo! Habari?" (Hello! How are you?), asked Singh in Kiswahili, the area's lingua franca. With an interpreter at his side, he stopped to talk to a few people, asking about activity like looting by armed groups or police, or Army harassment.

While planting climbing beans, Françoise Nyiramakuta said she still worries about coming to her fields alone, but that she now has faith that the peacekeepers' frequent patrols will protect her. "I do come [to the farm] because I know when there is a problem, they come [right away]," she says.

The peacekeeping mission here is among the most difficult in the world, according to experts. The terrain is a morass of thick forests, mountains, and valleys. There are few roads and most are unpaved, potholed – obstacle courses only passable with four-wheel-drive vehicles. Many areas lack strong state authority and basic services. Some are hours or days away from the nearest UN base.

Some say the peacekeepers' job is nearly impossible because there are simply not enough troops. Congo is roughly the size of Western Europe. And, although MONUSCO has more than 18,000 soldiers, there are about 10 million Congolese living in the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu alone.