The septuagenarian cleric, living in exile in Pennsylvania, is the inspiration behind a pro-democracy movement in Turkey whose adherents had become increasingly concerned with Erdoğan's authoritarianism.
Weeks before the failed coup, a spontaneous act of student defiance had triggered a protest against alleged efforts by Erdoğan and his Islamist-rooted party to impose pro-government ideology on schools.
Turkey, Egypt, and other favorite vacation spots are out of reach these days for Russians. But the north coast of the Black Sea, spanning from Crimea to Sochi to Abkhazia, offers an affordable alternative.
Turkey is waging a 'hearts and minds' campaign to undermine popular support for the 32-year Kurdish insurgency. But rising violence, including possibly Tuesday's Istanbul bombing, casts doubt on its strategy.
Despite a Turkey-EU vow that the deal now being implemented would be conducted in “full accordance” with international law, rights advocates say refugees' varying circumstances are not taken into account.
Vladimir Putin took questions from reporters and the public, on topics ranging from his love life to foreign policy. But the overarching theme seemed to be an effort to sympathize with and reassure Russians suffering from the recession.