Fifteen years into his rule, Erdoğan has gradually turned his country away from the secular tradition of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. He has also moved away from democratic norms, complicating ties with the West.
The conflict with ISIS and even older war in Syria will continue to radiate ferment across a region that will also witness an as-yet unknown Trump effect.
US relations with Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey are some of the most challenging in the region, and Donald Trump's election looks likely to unsettle them all.
Afghan scholar Naser Mozaffari survived harrowing experiences in Afghanistan, Syria, and Turkey. But his asylum application in Turkey has yet to be approved.