Under Qaddafi, Libya worked closely with Europe to harshly stem the flow of migrants across the Mediterranean. But the country's chaos has upended that.
Western powers are concerned that the fractured nation in North Africa is fertile ground for Islamic State militants.
Egypt's airstrikes came in response to the mass beheadings of 21 Egyptian Christians by IS militants in Libya. The Libyan government has called for the US-led coalition in Syria and Iraq to turn its attentions to Libya.
Gunmen attacked the hotel lobby and a car exploded shortly afterward in the hotel parking lot. At least eight people were killed in the armed assault.
Canadian officials have identified Michael Zehaf-Bibeau as the gunman killed in a shooting at Parliament. He had been blocked from traveling abroad amid concerns he was attempting to join up with extremists.
Reports suggest that Libya could be headed toward a prolonged civil war, with Islamist militias controlling the airport in the capital and the parliament forced to meet in the eastern city of Tobruk.
Rival militias are battling for control of Libya's international airport, which is closed after rocket fire destroyed most of the planes on the ground.
Khalifa Haftar survived a suicide bomb attack Wednesday. He is battling Islamist militias backed by allies in Libya's parliament. Meanwhile, a Red Cross official was shot dead in Sirte.
Libya's government depends on oil revenue, which has slowed precipitously since militiamen took over the oil fields last summer. But there's no need to panic (yet).
After military operations in Libya and Somalia, US counterterrorism appears to 'live on the edge of international law.'