The question has dogged France since the 1994 mass slaughter. President François Hollande announced Tuesday that the country will declassify official documents that could finally shed light on its role at the time.
An October BBC documentary titled 'Rwanda's Untold Story' represents and repeats most of the flaws and misreadings in the Western narrative on post-genocide Rwanda.
Over half of Rwanda's 11 million people were born since 1994, the year of the genocide. What matters to them is to change the image that comes to mind when one hears the word 'Rwanda.'
Initially reported to be spontaneous, 1994's genocide was long planned, and left more than 800,000 people dead, including about 70 percent of all the Tutsis in Rwanda.
Rwanda is the best success story of state-building in Africa in the last 20 years, despite its autocratic habits.
Rwandan President Paul Kagame continues to blame France for its role in the 1994 genocide by extremists Hutus, prompting another diplomatic row on the eve of a memorial ceremony.
In a week where Pretoria and Kigali have expelled nine diplomats between them, there is suspicion that Pretoria might expel Rwanda's ambassador.
The choice will be evident by the prime minister he chooses.
But with M23 troops on the wane and enjoying less support from Rwanda, there are still more questions than answers for the Great Lakes region.
Great Lakes envoys pushed for a deal to end long and bloody conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo. But agreed status of M23 rebels was too high a hurdle.
A UN 'intervention brigade' will enter the country this summer to fight Congolese rebels. But the countries sending troops have a political agenda as well.
Rwanda has tapped its post-conflict period to transform core programs like healthcare. Major gains include precipitous drops in HIV deaths and child mortality.
Warlord Bosco Ntaganda turned himself in because, with his rebel group fracturing and dwindling support from Rwanda, he had little other choice, writes political analyst Jason Stearns.
Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda has not yet explained why he turned himself in at the US embassy in Rwanda, but some suspect it was related to infighting in his M23 militia.
The 'heroic' leaders who follow notorious African dictators to power frequently fall from grace themselves. If Morgan Tsvangirai replaces Robert Mugabe as president of Zimbabwe, will he be next?
In late February, 11 African nations signed a new 'vision document' for peace in the eastern Congo. Regional expert Meredith Hutchison breaks down what it could mean for the region's future.