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Israel's unity government: a bid to represent the majority

For decades, Israel's system of representation gave tiny parties an outsized voice, particularly on the issue of settlements. The unity government now has a chance to prioritize majority views.

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In practice, however, Israel’s parliament has become a jumble of small and medium size parties representing small population segments which have become the coalition kingmakers in the rivalries between bigger mainstream parties. 

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Ultra-Orthodox priorities

That’s how the ultra-Orthodox, or Haredi, parties have been able to get government money to keep kids in religious seminaries and out of the compulsory draft or the work force. They’ve also been able to get government funding for autonomous school systems which have smaller class sizes and follow an independent curriculum that omits core subjects.

“The wholesale exemption of the Haredim [from military service] is a consequence of Israel’s distorted electoral system. The two issues are intertwined,” says Yossi Klein Halevy, a fellow at the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem. “It's our dysfunctional coalition system that allows a separatist minority to dictate policy to the mainstream. These are the issues that have to be unlocked.”

There are a myriad of proposals floating around to reform Israel’s electoral system. In the 1990s, Israel experimented with instituting a direct vote for prime minister alongside the contest between the parties to make the chief executive less dependent on small parties. But the number and diversity of small parties grew anyway. The system was eventually scrapped.

"We have to find measures for minority groups to be represented in larger political vehicles," says Ofer Kenig, a fellow at the Israel Democracy Institute, a think tank which has also called for reform. “In the UK you don’t have a Pakistani immigrant party, they find their way to the Labor or Conservative party, and this is because of the electoral system that doesn’t make it possible for them to compete independently.”

If Israeli politicians and experts find the right formula, experts say, it should encourage a more inclusionary brand of politics that will result in policies to better integrate the ultra-Orthodox and Israeli Arabs into the mainstream through programs like national service.

Implications for Palestinians

It should also weaken the ability of the Jewish settlers in the West Bank to block steps toward a political settlement with the Palestinians.

“They would still have power, but it would be lessened,” says Mr. Rynhold. “You would cease to see new settlements popping up every Wednesday and Friday.”

As a result the reaction has been mixed to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s mammoth unity coalition with more than three fourths of the parliamentary deputies. Some see it as more cynical coalition politics to survive for a year and a half. Others hope that not having to rely on the small parties will enable him to push through big reforms.

“Israel has a stable government with an enormous secular majority … we finally have a government that represents the Israeli majority which no sectoral party can extort,” wrote Ari Shavit in the liberal Haaretz newspaper. But “if this was the maneuver of the decade to win one more year in the Prime Minister’s residence, it’s all over for him. The public will not forgive or forget.”

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