Skip to: Content
Skip to: Site Navigation
Skip to: Search

Bal Thackeray: godfather of nativists in India's most cosmopolitan city

In death as in life, Bal Thackeray divided Mumbai. Mumbaikars shuttered shops fearing violence, while hundreds of thousands thronged the funeral today of the Shiv Sena founder. 

By Rebecca ByerlyCorrespondent / November 18, 2012

Supporters wail during the cremation of Hindu hardline Shiv Sena party leader Bal Thackeray in Mumbai, India, Sunday. Hundreds of thousands of supporters have filled the streets of Mumbai for the funeral of Bal Thackeray, a Hindu extremist leader linked to waves of mob violence against Muslims and migrant workers in India.

Rafiq Maqbool/AP


New Delhi

The funeral of Bal Thackeray, a nativist leader who dominated the politics of Mumbai, has brought the city of nearly 20 million to a standstill. Shops widows are shuttered, movie theaters closed, and people across the metropolis are staying in their homes. But not everything is closing down out of respect: Many in Mumbai feel they have been forced into mourning. 

Skip to next paragraph

In life, Mr. Thackeray deployed volunteers of his right-wing Shiv Sena party as "Hindu warriors," intimidating opponents and at times stirring up communal tensions. In 1992, he called on his volunteers to join a wider right-wing Hindu effort to demolish the historic Babri Mosque, an incident that touched off deadly religious riots. At times, he argued Hindus needed suicide bombers to counter Islamic terrorism. Believed too powerful to be challenged, he was never prosecuted for any of the violent episodes involving the Shiv Sena. Over the years, he railed against non-Indian traditions like Valentine's Day, the revival of cricket matches between India and Pakistan, and the prevalence of non-local actors in Bollywood movies. 

Upon his death from a heart attack Saturday, the city immediately began shutting down out of concern that violence would erupt and 48,000 police officers were put on high alert. 

“The power Bal Thackeray and the Shiv Sena wield across Mumbai is not about people’s support of the party as much as it’s about blackmail,” says a Mumbai-based Bollywood actor, who is Hindu and asked to remain anonymous for fear of violent repercussions. “If people did not shut their shops or went on the streets they would likely be attacked by Sena members. The party has been able to create a fear psychosis. If people do not give reverence to them and do what they say they have the ability to mobilize people to hurt you.”

But Thackeray clearly has deep springs of support, too, as the hundreds of thousands who came out to his funeral attested. While many of the city's minorities and more educated found Thackeray's tactics distasteful and oppressive, middle class and poor Marathis – members of the main ethnic group in the surrounding Maharashtra state – see him as a big brother who safeguarded their jobs from the massive influx of migrants from all over India. 

Thackeray's six-decade career began as a cartoonist. Giving voice to nativist concerns in a rapidly expanding city, Thackeray – who said he was an admirer of Hitler and dawned stylish sunglasses – gained a powerful following as he fought for the Hindu and Marathi character of the city and surrounding state. He was pivotal in the push to change the name of the city from Bombay to Mumbai. 


  • Weekly review of global news and ideas
  • Balanced, insightful and trustworthy
  • Subscribe in print or digital

Special Offer


Doing Good


What happens when ordinary people decide to pay it forward? Extraordinary change...

Danny Bent poses at the starting line of the Boston Marathon in Hopkinton, Mass.

After the Boston Marathon bombings, Danny Bent took on a cross-country challenge

The athlete-adventurer co-founded a relay run called One Run for Boston that started in Los Angeles and ended at the marathon finish line to raise funds for victims.

Become a fan! Follow us! Google+ YouTube See our feeds!