Sri Lanka: ambitious plan to rebuild 'ground zero' in war with Tamil Tigers
After 26 years of civil war, Sri Lanka has an ambitious $1 billion plan to revive the city of Jaffna, long isolated by the rebel Tamil Tigers.
Jaffna, Sri Lanka
In chartered buses and private cars, Sri Lankans pour into this war-ravaged city, finally rejoined to the rest of the country.Skip to next paragraph
Subscribe Today to the Monitor
Some are ethnic Tamils coming home to see relatives after decades living elsewhere. Others are Sinhalese tourists from the south, curious to see a long-denied corner of their island.
Jaffna served as ground zero in Sri Lanka's 26-year civil war, which ended last May with the defeat of the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The city remains run-down, hollowed out by war, occupation, and isolation.
But nine months of peace has opened up road links, pared down the number of military checkpoints, and ended a nighttime curfew in Jaffna. Ambitious postwar plans call for the rebuilding of its cratered downtown, though it will take more than money to undo the damage of a bitter, ethnic-based conflict over land and power.
"It will take many, many years," says S K Sirtrampalam, a retired historian at the University of Jaffna.
In 1995, the LTTE ceded control of the city and its hinterland to Sri Lankan troops, who carved out giant military bases and used Tamil paramilitaries to police a cowed population. In 2000, the separatist group tried and failed to retake Jaffna but held onto Elephant Pass, a choke point into the peninsula.
For much of the war, Jaffna was a place apart from the rest of Sri Lanka. The LTTE severed road access, forcing goods and people to travel by air or sea. While under government control, it was off limits to outsiders. Residents needed advance permission from authorities to leave.
The tourists are back
Now Jaffna has rejoined the country. Domestic tourism has picked up as Sri Lankans come to gawk at war wreckage and pray at the temples. Jaffna now attracts about 2,000 tourists a day, the mayor recently told a foreign visitor.
Night markets are busy, with hawkers laying out goods on plastic sheets by the road. A long-neglected Buddhist temple is raising money to build a monastery. Many hotels are full, and owners are scrambling to add rooms. The library, rebuilt after being torched by an anti-Tamil mob in 1981, is a draw for visitors. Residents say the dismantling of checkpoints means less tension in their daily commute.
But it's still uncertain whether the city will emerge as a symbol of post-war renaissance or an icon of festering civil war tensions.
Most of the tourists are Sinhalese, the dominant ethnic group, and they readily accept the official narrative of a liberated city that is earmarked for success under government rule. "There was a war, so we couldn't come here. It's developing fast. If we come back after three months, it will be like Kandy," says Charith Udagedara, a university student, comparing Jaffna to the southern city where he is from.
Sri Lanka plans to spend $1 billion a year to rebuild the north, focusing on the construction and rebuilding of hospitals, schools, government buildings, roads, and electrical grids, according to central bank governor Ajith Nivard Cabraal. The World Bank also recently approved $110 million in loans for projects in the northeast.