Japan earthquake leaves ghost towns in its wake
For large swathes of the coast hit hardest by the March 11 Japan earthquake and tsunami, a daunting rebuilding effort is exacerbated by years of falling birth rates and a youth exodus to big cities.
The Japan earthquake has accelerated the decline of small cities and villages, experts say, and will likely leave behind a collection of ghost towns along the tsunami-devastated northeast coast.Skip to next paragraph
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Amid concern of future natural disasters, many communities that were already shrinking due to aging and depopulation now look set to never be rebuilt.
"One hundred years ago, these villages would have been rebuilt, but now I am not at all sure," says Akio Nishizawa, an economics professor at Sendai's Tohoku University. "Coastal communities here have already experienced the problem of young people leaving for the cities and this might be the final straw."
For large swathes of the coast hit hardest by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami, a daunting rebuilding effort is exacerbated by years of falling birth rates and youth exodus to big cities. The government, under economic strain even before the disaster, now faces the question of how to balance efforts between rebuilding the economy and rebuilding people's shattered communities.
“There’s nothing here for me now. I don’t want to live here anymore,” says 17-year-old Kohei Abe, whose father works in the local fishing industry. “I go to high school in Sendai [the nearest big city] because there’s nowhere to go around here. I was in Sendai when the earthquake hit, and I came back here, and there was nothing left.”
Mr. Abe says that because the people in his village, Nonohama, had experienced tsunami damage before, they knew to flee to higher ground when they felt the earthquake. Seven of the 90 villagers died, and no houses are left standing. His father, Masashi, says he has just finished paying off his debts from a tsunami 34 years ago: “That’s it for me now. I’m not going to start again."
Economic aftershocks on small towns
Long before the March 11 tsunami, the coastal village of Nonohama had already been merged with four other villages to form Kobura, a new municipality, a pattern seen across Japan as the population of smaller towns has fallen. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of people living in small towns and cities in Japan fell by 10 million. The Japanese working population peaked at 87 million in 1995 and by 2050 is predicted to be lower than 50 million.
“For the smaller towns with older populations, there’s a good chance many of them won’t recover; they just won’t be rebuilt,” says Koichi Hachi, chief economist at the NLI Research Institute in Tokyo. “It’s not just a question of buildings though, if some people leave, the population will drop so far they won’t be able to survive as towns.”