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Rebel alliances strengthen in Mali's north, rattling neighboring countries

The northern two-thirds of Mali is now under control of Tuareg and Islamist rebels who want to redraw national boundaries and export revolution. Displaced minorities tell of brutality.

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Mali’s Tuareg guerrillas -- who have fought several rebellions since Mali gained its independence from French rule in 1960 -- began the current bout of rebellion in mid-January with weapons and vehicles taken from the crumbling Qaddafi regime. Now, as they consolidate their rule over northern Mali, they have access to arms depots left by the Malian military.

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Rebels racing through Gao

The MNLA advocates a partition of the country to create an independent, primarily ethnic-Tuareg homeland, which they refer to as Azawad. Though the MNLA says it wants to eliminate aspects of the Malian state it believes to be corrupt, and not target other ethnic groups, the Monitor spoke with Christian refugees from the northeastern city of Gao who told of having fled to Bamako for their lives.

Mohammed-Ibrahim Yattara, a community leader for Gao’s small local Protestant denomination, described in detail the wanton destruction caused by marauding rebel fighters. Dr. Yattara told of the MNLA and Ansar Eddine working in tandem to trash all of the city’s bureaucratic infrastructure and local institutions including medical facilities and his now abandoned church. He displayed a series of cellphone images showing the immense damage rebels had caused in Gao along with parts of large rocket munitions brought in by the fighters.

Careening through Gao’s dusty warrens in heavily armed Toyota fighting trucks, intimidating residents of every stripe, the rebels were uniformly brutal, says Dr. Yattara. “The only difference between the two groups is their flag.”

Gamer Dicko, a Bamako-based journalist for the state-run Malian Press Agency, told of a dire situation in his hometown of Gossi in Timbuktu Region’s far southeast. Half-Tuareg himself, he said he was unable to return home to visit his aging parents since the rebel takeover, fearing for his personal safety.

The massive ungoverned space in northern Mali presents one of the most formidable global security challenges since the Taliban takeover of the majority of Afghanistan’s territory from 1994-2001. The conflict is in a relative stalemate as northern rebels leaders and squabbling southern-based political elites try to hammer out various power compromises.

Aside from the Malian Tuareg nationals who conquered a huge swath of territory in a series of raids in late March, witnesses now sheltering in Bamako reported transnational jihadis hailing from throughout the region belonging to AQIM, MUJWA, members of the northern Nigerian salafist group Boko Haram, and freelancers who reportedly spoke none of the regional languages and attempted to use English to communicate.  

The efforts of ECOWAS, led by Burkina Faso’s president Blaise Campaore, to intervene have borne little fruit in Mali thus far.

Here in Bamako, meanwhile, residents live day-to-day, coping with the highest degree of political uncertainty imaginable.

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