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Youth access to drugs increases

Teens can now get marijuana and prescription drugs more easily than last year. But drug usage is not up.

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Drug price also plays an important role in usage, and it is not always affected by availability, notes Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Bethesda, Md. A 2007 NIDA study notes, for example, that changes in cocaine availability for 12th-graders over the last three decades has not proved a major determinant of use. What changed cocaine use was the introduction of low-cost crack cocaine in the early 1980s, which broke down social-class differences.

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Besides, attitudes count most, says Steve Pasierb, president and CEO of the nonprofit Partnership for a Drug-Free America. "Use moves independent of supply to a degree."

For example, teen Ecstasy use increased dramatically at the beginning of this decade because young people viewed the pills as safe and saw few social consequences to taking "the hug drug." But news of Ecstasy-related deaths and a national campaign, launched in 2001, helped reduce usage by ratcheting up perception of risk and social disapproval, says Mr. Pasierb.

Teens and parents alike underestimate the risk of prescription drugs, he adds. "Grandma uses them or something like that, and that comes with a veil of safety."

It is not clear why marijuana and prescription drug availability rose this year, but contributing factors may include the influx of painkillers and attention-deficit drugs like Ritalin and the existence of websites where teens can learn how to grow marijuana, says Elizabeth Planet, who managed the survey.

But the single most important factor may be parental engagement, Ms. Planet adds, citing the fact that while nearly half the teens in the CASA survey said they typically leave the house on school nights to hang out with friends, only 14 percent of parents knew their children did so.

That disconnect between parents and children has serious consequences, she says. Fifty percent of teens who usually return home after 10 p.m. and 29 percent of those who come home between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. reported that people drink alcohol, smoke marijuana or use other drugs at these nighttime get-togethers, usually at a friend's house.

Califano recommends that parents tackle drug issues at their children's schools and model good behavior. "Parents have got to send clear messages to kids," Califano says.

While it's critical that parents get involved in their children's lives, teens are not just abusing drugs because their parents are apathetic or poor role models, says Neil Bernstein, a clinical psychologist in Washington. "These aren't choirboys or choir girls," he says. "They are at risk: They often hang out with like-minded peers, take more risks, are thrill seekers, are less happy with their lives, do poorly in school, and lack adequate life skills."