Fraud in scientific research: It happens, and cases are on the rise
Of 2,000 retractions of published scientific papers since 1977, 866 were because of fraud, a new study finds. Another 201 were plagiarized. But it's hard to know if more scientists are cheating, or if detection is simply better.
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The research triggered a backlash against immunization that extended from Britain to the US. Dr. Wakefield still defends his research. One review of the study and its aftermath, published last year in the journal Ann Pharmacother, called it "the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years."Skip to next paragraph
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In other cases, researchers have had to retract tens of papers they published that were built on altered or fabricated data – ruining their careers and tainting the prospects of otherwise promising graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in their labs.
While the number of retractions for misconduct is small, a 10-fold increase in papers retracted for fraud could cast a pall on science in a manner similar to that of a community reporting a 10-fold increase in crime, Fang says. In the end, whether the increase is due to better reporting or to an actual increase in violations, or both, it tarnishes a community's image.
Some evidence suggests that the problem may be larger than the new study indicates. Fang notes that in reading the notices that accompanied papers' retractions, not all notices were explicit about the reasons for the retractions.
In addition, others have noted that a large gap remains between misconduct spotted in the lab and misconduct reported.
Four years ago, a survey of NIH-funded scientists suggested far more misconduct was taking place in labs than was being reported. The results appeared as a commentary in the journal Nature.
Researchers point to several factors that can lead to retracted papers, ranging from simple mistakes to fraud.
Panels that hire entry-level faculty at colleges and universities look at the number of papers an applicant has published and the quality of the journals that accepted the research reports, boosting the pressure on graduate and even undergraduate students to publish in high-profile journals.
Once hired, researchers need to bring in grant money to pay for their research – a process in which a growing number of scientists is competing for a shrinking slice of federal funds and a limited supply of private-foundation funds.
If a researcher runs a lab, he or she in effect is operating a small business, Dr. McFadden says. The "revenue" comes in the form of grants, awarded on the basis of past performance and on the science questions the lab is trying to answer. The grants pay graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and support staff, as well as other research-related expenses. The "product," research, needs to be sufficiently cutting edge to attract the best and brightest prospects as current grad students get their degrees and move into the research marketplace. And the lab's leader must ensure that the work is complying with an increasing load of regulations and safeguards – with all the paperwork that comes with them.
At best, these factors can make it tough for a lab's head to provide enough oversight as work moves from test tube to journal publication. At worst, they can provide a perverse incentive to cut corners or fabricate data for attention-grabbing results.
Given the PNAS study's findings, more attention needs to be focused on reducing errors and fraud, Fang and his colleagues write.
One place to start is with the retractions themselves, he says. They should contain a clear statement as to why the paper is being withdrawn. Some bits of work or some of the data could still be useful, but other researchers can't know for sure if stated reasons for yanking a paper are vague.
In addition, because research papers form the red carpet for getting a job, a promotion, or tenure, people making the decisions on those career steps should place more emphasis on the quality of the work and less on quantity, Fang says, adding that funding levels for science also remain a factor.
In addition, universities and colleges are putting more emphasis on ethics training for researchers, as well as training scientists and graduate students to mentor their juniors while in the lab, McFadden says. Within the past several years, the NIH and the National Science Foundation have put an increased focus on this in their grant requirements, she says.
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