Chotu, 16 (foreground, and other workers load coal into a bucket in a mine’s open central shaft that will be lifted out by crane. An entrance to a coal tunnel is in the background. Daniel Etter
Podum, age 12, rides in a box used to transport coal. He’s Nepalese. He, his father, and one of his three brothers work in the mines. He says he earns $30 a week. Note the flashlight strapped to his head. Daniel Etter
Yong (r.) and Teisu (c.) load coal into a coal crusher near a mine. Both boys say they are 13, but neither was sure about his age. Most workers at this mine are Nepalese, who are allowed to seek jobs here. Other miners are Bangladeshi, who work in India illegally. Daniel Etter
Workers load coal onto a truck. Those trucks bound for Bangladesh may return with illegal child workers who have been promised good jobs. Daniel Etter
Girls play outside a coal mine in the Indian state of Meghalaya. No girls work in the mines, but some may work outside them. Some children are here with their families; others may be bonded laborers whom their parents sold to middlemen. The middlemen, in turn, sell them to mine owners. Daniel Etter
At day’s end, a young man – he says he’s 18 – climbs a ladder out of a coal pit 200 feet deep. Coal is excavated from long tunnels just 20 to 40 inches high that are dug into the walls of the central pit. The cramped tunnels may wend for 3,000 feet. Daniel Etter
Coal miners and their families watch a Bollywood film in a makeshift movie theater in a miners’ camp. Daniel Etter
Jhusi, age 9 (foreground) mines coal; Durga, 5 (in doorway), is a coal miner’s son. They’re resting at their home in a coal miners’ camp. Children as young as 7 work in the mines. Daniel Etter
Ani, age 15, crawls out of a ‘rat hole’ in a coal quarry in the Jaintia Hills of India. There are an estimated 5,000 such mines employing 70,000 children, according to India-based children’s rights group Impulse. Daniel Etter
Podum, the worker pictured in the second photo, jumps into a pond near the mine during a free moment. He told a reporter that the work is very difficult and dangerous, but that he’s not scared to do it Daniel Etter
President Erdogan, courted by Obama and Biden while in New York, says Turkey is ready to play a more active role against the Islamic State. It has had many misgivings.
ByDominique Soguel, Correspondent
When President Recep Tayyip Erdogan returned home from the United Nations last week, he said Turkey was ready to play a more active role in the US-led anti-Islamic State coalition that has drawn new members both from across the West as well as the Arab world.