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Surprise: Old-growth forests soak up CO2

Woodlands in developed world also absorb CO2. What will impact be on global climate talks?

By Peter N. SpottsStaff writer of The Christian Science Monitor / September 24, 2008

A moose on the loose in Canada’s boreal forest. The vast stands of trees in northern latitudes are better at scrubbing carbon from the atmosphere than previously thought.

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The concept seems simple: Enlist key developing countries in the fight against global warming by paying them with carbon credits to not cut down their tropical forests. In international climate talks, the idea has gained a lot of traction.

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But some forest ecologists are figuratively tugging on negotiators’ sleeves and saying: “Don’t forget forests at higher latitudes.” It may be time to give countries with large intact temperate and boreal (far northern) forests credit for forest preservation as well, they say.

It’s not clear how much traction this policy prescription could have. Whether and how to account for forests’ roles in slowing global warming – forests in wealthy, developed countries, that is – has long been contentious.

Giving developed countries a credit-for-preservation deal doesn’t erase the principle that different countries have different responsibilities for tackling climate change, says Sebastiaan Luyssaert, an ecologist at the University of Antwerp in Belgium. But “when primary forest landscapes provide much-needed services to mankind, this should be accounted for, irrespective of country.”

From the atmosphere’s perspective, “a pulse of CO2 has the same warming effect, irrespective of the GDP of the forest” from which it came, says Brendan Makey, an ecologist at the Australian National University in Canberra. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “we need to be well below zero emissions by 2100,” he says. And in order to stabilize concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, “we do not have a choice ... but to halt emissions from deforestation and degradation – and in fact begin to restore the terrestrial carbon stock.”

Setting up a system to give developing countries credit for tropical-forest conservation is seen by many as low-hanging fruit in the struggle against climate change. Some 90 percent of global deforestation – responsible for 20 percent of all human-caused CO2 emissions – occurs in 24 tropical nations.

Such a system would reward poor countries with a financial incentive to reduce deforestation. Developed na­­tions, facing the prospect of tighter greenhouse-gas emissions, would be eager to buy carbon credits tropical countries earned this way.

For tropical countries, the sale of carbon credits could bring in from $2.2 billion to $13.5 billion a year, based on the value of the credits on international carbon markets, according to a study published early this year in Britain’s Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

Now new research suggests that some of the world’s oldest forests at higher latitudes soak up CO2 far longer than previously believed. Belgium’s Dr. Luyssaert says the initial exclusion of these forests in carbon accounting assumed that such old-growth forests gave off through respiration as much CO2 as they took in through pho­­to­­synthesis. They were thought to be carbon-neutral – based on a 1969 study that measured one forest at the beginning and the end of a 10-year period.

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