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When gift-card promises go unfulfilled

Shoppers should consider a retailer's financial health before buying its plastic.

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"Rapid consumer acceptance of the product during good economic times has created a fallback for merchants to use when their cash flow begins to dry up," Riley wrote in a May 2008 TowerGroup report. In an interview, Riley adds that this practice, called breakage, is legal and based on the assumption the funds on some cards will never be redeemed.

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But shifting funds can leave coffers empty and gift card holders out of luck when a retailer files for bankruptcy.

The only legal recourse open to card holders in that situation is to file as an "unsecured creditor" with the bankruptcy court.

But analysts say it's usually not worth the effort. For many, the return would be pennies on the dollar.

"At the end of the day you are a little consumer, still in line with thousands of other consumers," and unsecured creditors often get repaid last – if funds are available, Riley says.

Rather than scramble to get money returned, it's better to purchase cards from a strong company, analysts say. But who has the time to research an organization's financial statements?

"I've bought them before and [even] I don't go to Moody's [a credit-rating service]," Mathe says.

Thankfully, prudent practices don't require an MBA. One clear option, Beemer says, is to buy cards from very stable retailers.

"You may be forced to pick companies like Wal-Mart or Target," he says. "But you know they aren't going anywhere, versus a store you may not know as well."

Another option is "open loop" gift cards that are tied to a bank rather than a store. In this case, it won't matter if your favorite retailer goes bankrupt. But open-loop cards often come with monthly maintenance fees, warns Beemer. "A bank card may be safer, but fees may make it the worst to buy" for those consumers who will let the cards languish, he says.

Mathe advocates a simple formula: "Giver: Purchase [the card] as close to the event as possible. Recipient: Go ahead and spend that gift card, and take advantage of post-holiday sales to get more bang for your buck."

Or, she says, purchase a gift card from Leverage, which provides consumers with gift-card insurance. Leverage sells gift cards for more than 200 retailers, one of which was Sharper Image, whose bankruptcy prompted their insurance policy.

"We asked ourselves, are they [card holders] holding on to a dead piece of plastic? This doesn't feel right. We've benefited from consumers giving money to us in exchange for a gift card. It seems intrinsically fair for us to absorb some of the risk," she says.

If a customer owns a Leverage gift card from a retailer that has declared bankruptcy, Leverage will transfer the balance to another store whose gift cards they sell.