Europe's Angry Muslims
What lessons can the US learn from the anger simmering in some of Europe's Muslim communities?
Ever since September 11, 2001, Americans have become more interested than ever before in learning about those who use their Muslim religious training to justify deadly attacks.Skip to next paragraph
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Robert S. Leiken has been researching potential Muslim aggressors in the wake of 9/11, concerned about vulnerability within the United States but focusing mostly on England, France, and Germany, hoping to learn what knowledge might be transferable. Leiken is an unusual scholar, a mixture of PhD academic, think tank independent, community organizer, and immersion journalist. The result is a book with much to teach about Muslim men and women who have settled in three European countries as well as the US. The book will almost surely infuriate some readers because Leiken refuses to demonize a religious community in toto. But it might infuriate other readers because in some chapters Leiken seems to rely on stereotypes while trying to lead a nuanced discussion. Perhaps the most appropriate caveat is this: While learning about new worlds from Leiken’s research, beware the unexpected turns; Europe’s Angry Muslims is a troubling book to consume, for many reasons.
In carefully crafted chapters, Leiken writes that more-or-less repressive government policies aimed at Muslim populations in France appear to have minimized deadly violence; that more tolerant government policies in England have allowed an overabundance of deadly violence; and that Germany might become a greater trouble zone than it is currently, especially because of Muslim populations with national origins in Turkey.
If that summary makes Leiken sound like a reflexive law-and-order authoritarian, well, his words do sometimes come across that way. But there is nothing reflexive about Leiken’s thought process. He is a wide-ranging, freethinking scholar now past age 70 who lets his conclusions fall where they may, apparently without regard to intellectual trendiness or easily labeled political ideology.
The subtitle of the book explains a great deal about Leiken’s original scholarship, with the term “second generation” serving as the key. In England, France, Germany – and to some extent the United States – the potential and actual jihadists are the children of the original immigrants from Pakistan or Turkey or Algeria or other nation-states with concentrated populations of Muslims. Those second-generation residents (sometimes legalized citizens of their adopted countries, sometimes not) often feel unfairly treated in the job market, in school, in society at large. As a result, they convert that feeling of dispossession into violent plans.