Pssst. K Street delivers the goods – for a price.
Washington lobbyists are in hot demand, as clients seeking budget favors – such as earmarks – multiply.
So you want to get an earmark. The best advice from many Washington insiders is to hire a lobbyist – and start early.Skip to next paragraph
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The phones start ringing in January to get on committee lists for "directed appropriations," or earmarks, to be added to spending bills and other legislation in the next fiscal year, which begins Oct 1. By mid-March, earmark request forms are due to the House Appropriations Committee.
But peak season for bagging earmarks is the end of the year, when hundreds of earmarks – many appearing for the first time – are slipped into vast spending bills as House and Senate versions are reconciled in conference committees.
The key to getting on the list is access. Some members say you don't need a lobbyist to get it. Rep. Barney Frank (D) of Massachusetts says he once a told a lobbyist representing a city in his district to tell that client to "come to me directly."
But prospective clients aren't getting the message. In the past seven years, the number of groups that hired lobbyists to gain access to the federal budget and appropriations process has more than doubled from almost 1,500 to nearly 4,000. That's made winning congressional earmarks one of the fastest growing specialties on Washington's K Street lobby corridor.
"In 1998, there were some 1,498 entities – cities, towns, companies, etc. – that hired lobbyists on budget/earmarks/ appropriations issues. There were 3,903 in the final reports for 2005," says Keith Ashdown of Taxpayers for Common Sense, citing Senate records. Although there is no way to find out exactly how many were just for earmark lobbying, it's likely that "most of them are," he adds.
Lobby shops are not shy about touting success on their websites for being able to win earmarks for their clients.
•Alcalde & Fay claims to have "secured billions of dollars in 'earmarked' appropriations and federal grants."
•Patton Boggs LLP cites success in securing "hundreds of millions of dollars in federal funds" for its clients every year, including funding for programs "not requested in the Administration budget."
•Holland & Knight LLP, which notes more than $1.45 billion in federal appropriations for its clients since 2000, says that: "Although success is never guaranteed, the fees that our clients pay in pursuit of legislative appropriations are almost always greatly exceeded by the amount of funding they receive."
Such firms attribute their success to close ties with congressional staff, critical agencies, and the White House. Fees can range from retainers of $5,000 a month to more than $20,000 a month. Clients are often told to expect 18 months to two years to produce results on an earmark.
Lawmakers close to the process say it's wrong to see the role of lobbyists as simply peddling influence. "When a university president comes to me and says: 'We have a series of issues where we need help, often I say to him: 'You need a lobbyist – not for influence, but for understanding," says Sen. Robert Bennett (R) of Utah, who chairs the Agriculture subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations Committee.