What ever happened to the paperless office?
The dream seems to recede further into the future every year. But now sales show that offices may finally be turning the page on paper use.
For office innovators, the unrealized dream of the "paperless" office is a classic example of high-tech hubris. Today's office drone is drowning in more paper than ever before.Skip to next paragraph
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But after decades of hype, American offices may finally be losing their paper obsession. The demand for paper used to outstrip the growth of the US economy, but the past two or three years have seen a marked slowdown in sales - despite a healthy economic scene,
Analysts attribute the decline to advances in digital databases and communication systems, employment trends, and a generation of office workers who are more comfortable with the new technology. Escaping our craving for paper, however, will be anything but a cold-turkey affair.
"Old habits are hard to break," says Merilyn Dunn, communications supplies director for InfoTrends/CAP Ventures, a market research firm in Weymouth, Mass. "There are some functions that paper serves where a screen display doesn't work. Those functions are both its strength and its weakness."
In the early to mid-'90s, a booming economy and improved desktop printers helped boost paper sales by 6 to 7 percent each year. The convenience of desktop printing allowed office workers to indulge in printing anything and everything at very little effort or cost.
But now, the growth rate of paper sales in the United States is flattening by about half a percent each year. Between 2004 and 2005, Ms. Dunn says, plain white office paper will see less than a 4 percent growth rate, despite the strong overall economy. A primary reason for the change, says Dunn, is that for the first time ever, some 47 percent of the workforce entered the job market after computers had already been introduced to offices.
"We're finally seeing a reduction in the amount of paper being used per worker in the workplace," says John Maine, vice president of RISI, a pulp and paper economic consulting firm in Charlottesville, Va. "More information is being transmitted electronically, and more and more people are comfortable with the information residing only in electronic form without printing multiple backups."
In addition, Mr. Maine points to the lackluster employment market for white-collar workers - the primary driver of office paper consumption - for the shift in paper usage.
The real paradigm shift may be in the way paper is used. Since the advent of advanced and reliable office-network systems, data storage has moved away from paper archives. The secretarial art of "filing" is disappearing from job descriptions. Much of today's data may never leave its original digital format.
The changing attitudes toward paper have finally caught the attention of paper companies, says Richard Harper, a researcher at Microsoft and coauthor of the book, "The Myth of the Paperless Office" (2002). "All of a sudden, the paper industry has started thinking, 'We need to learn more about the behavioral aspects of paper use,' " he says. "They had never asked, they'd just assumed that 70 million sheets would be bought per year as a literal function of economic growth."
To reduce paper use, some companies are working to combine digital and paper capabilities. For example, Xerox Corp. is developing electronic paper: thin digital displays that respond to a stylus, like a pen on paper. Notations can be easily erased or saved digitally.