Where the gender gap gets its start
It's a puzzle confounding more than a few admissions officers around the United States: Why aren't more young men applying to our colleges?Skip to next paragraph
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To some, hints can be found in the state of athletic facilities. To others, female-dominated marketing materials could be a culprit. Still others target the need for better follow-up with male applicants.
But increasingly, attention is turning to what happens well before a boy thinks about dorm life or the ideal major.
The K-12 school environment is coming under scrutiny as educators try to figure out why boys are often not as well prepared as girls are for the hurdle of applying to college. As boys do less well academically, drop out of high school at higher rates, and dwindle in numbers on college campuses, educators are starting to ask how - and whether - to adjust traditional assumptions that may deter boys from pursuing a college degree.
The roots of the problem, they're realizing, may develop far earlier than junior year, when applications get under way.
"We've got to figure this out," says Diane Hulse, head of the middle school at the all-boys Collegiate School in New York City. "It has the potential to be a national calamity."
Teachers have noted differences in behavioral patterns for generations. Girls tend to print neatly and follow directions. Boys may settle for illegible work. Girls often sit nicely in their seats, while boys are more likely to move about. Girls may seek the teacher out for a discussion when they have a problem; boys may opt for a display of nonchalance when confused.
Until quite recently, concern was focused on the educational progress of girls. They lagged behind boys in all measures of science and math achievement, and often lacked confidence academically.
Educators and feminists alike devoted considerable effort from the 1970s through the '90s to the question of building girls' self-esteem as learners. New curricula were created, textbooks were redesigned, and teachers were cautioned about favoring boys in discussions.
To a large extent, it now appears, such efforts have succeeded - while boys have either stood still or slipped back.
"If you look at enrollment numbers in advanced-placement courses, at a certain point you can actually see the girls move ahead of the boys," says Christina Hoff Sommers, a scholar at Washington's American Enterprise Institute and author of "The War on Boys." "In 1984, it reaches about 50-50, then in 1986 the girls move slightly ahead, and from there they never look back."
In the beginning of the 1980s, standardized test scores showed that girls were a bit ahead of boys in reading and writing, but significantly behind in math and science. Today, results from 1996 national assessment tests show 17-year-old boys lead girls by five points in math and eight points in science, but lag by 14 points in reading and 17 points in writing.
"What's been happening over the last 15 years or so is that boys continue to drop in their reading and writing scores and today in general are in the lowest rungs," says William Pollack, director of the Center for Men and Young Men at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Mass., and author of "Real Boys' Voices."
The issue can play out in both what boys have to offer colleges and how they handle the process of applying.
A guiding push toward college
Bettye Winder, who has been a guidance counselor in the Philadelphia public school system for 27 years, says that throughout her experience, she has noted a marked difference in how boys and girls approach college admissions.
"The girls are more goal-oriented," she says. "With boys, it's like I have to chase after them to get them to move. They may want to go to college, but they want me to tell them where to go and what to do."