Barbie struts into an Islamic stronghold
To many hard-line clerics in Iran, the most insidious cultural threat to the values of the Islamic revolution comes in a hot pink box and sits on toyshop shelves.Skip to next paragraph
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Barbie, with her curvaceous body, miniskirts, and platinum-blond hair, hardly represents the Islamic image of women fostered in Iran. Here, women must cover their hair in public. Lipstick is a sign of defiance.
But the American icon - which is one of the most sought-after toys worldwide - is a big hit with Iranian girls. Despite Iran officially being a closed society, Barbie is sold on the open market. It's led some to say that Barbie is heading up an unwanted "cultural invasion" from the West that has also brought hamburgers and Hollywood.
Iranian officials raced to turn out an acceptable, Islamic answer to Barbie in time for the 20th anniversary of the revolution, which was Feb. 11. But the production date for Sara and her brother Dara has been set back to spring for lack of "suitable hair."
"About Barbie, we not only think it is not good for our children here, we think it is not suitable for American children," says Majid Qaderi, a director at the Institute of Children and Young Adults Development Center in Tehran, which has designed the new dolls.
But Barbie nevertheless is being groomed for abroad. Jill Barad, the chief executive of Mattel Inc., which is based in El Segundo, Calif., and makes Barbie, has made a major push to expand into global markets.
In Mr. Qaderi's view, Barbie dolls "only teach consumerism" and cause children to grow up too fast. "Bad influences" include profligate dress, makeup, and an example of "unlimited freedom of relationships ... between boys and girls."
"Barbie is a symbol of American culture," says Qaderi. "The first thing we can do is teach our children about who they are [as Iranians], about their own culture.... We have to act in a way that the kids themselves reject the bad part [of Western culture] and absorb the good part."
'Westernization' of Iran
Barbie dolls are not the only American influence on the lives of Iranians, who had a long experience with Western culture prior to the 1979 revolution. That watershed event was in part a violent reaction to the extensive "Westernization" of Iranian society by Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi.
The result was a theocratic Islamic regime that sought to restrict outside influence on Iranians. Now, Western movies and music are prohibited.
But many Iranians had seen the blockbuster film "Titanic" within a week of its release in the United States last year - often watching bootleg videotapes that had been shot with a hand-held camcorder in a movie theater. Western music is another hot commodity: Sometimes smugglers hide as many as 30 CDs under their clothing. And the popularity of hamburgers, pizza, and imitation Nike shoes means that countering this "invasion" has been difficult.
For children, the American influence is quite apparent: Barbie dolls, which cost $25 to $30 each, share shelf space with videos and toys that range from Batman and Power Rangers to Snow White and Pocahontas.