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In Conservative Chile, What You See Isn't What You Get

In this 'country of appearances,' reality doesn't always go by the rules

By Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor / November 29, 1996



SANTIAGO, CHILE

Despite the fact that she lives in a country where children born out of wedlock are legally denied certain rights as they mature, Alejandra Martnez says life for her three-year-old "natural" daughter is just fine.

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"Most of the girls around my age in my [housing] complex have a baby without being married, and it doesn't seem to bother anyone," says the young worker in a Santiago women's center. "It's another example among many we have in Chile where the people have changed despite certain laws that stay the same. People just ignore them."

With its laws prohibiting divorce and abortion, a movie rating and censoring commission that includes representatives of the military, and a birth certificate that separates "legitimate" from "natural," Chile is considered by many to be a bastion of social conservatism. While the rest of Latin America has been swept by waves of liberalization as the region has democratized and opened its economy, the theory goes, a resistant Chile has stemmed the tide.

Controversy this month over whether to allow the eight-year-old Martin Scorcese movie, "The Last Temptation of Christ," to finally be seen in Chile, led to a fresh round of commentary on Chile's social conservatism.

Popular theory cites the country's geographical isolation and the conservatism of immigrant groups such as the Germans, who settled parts of the rural south as at least partial explanation for a resistance to social change.

But other Chileans say Chile's social fabric is cut from the same cloth as the rest of Latin America and that the effects of the country's conservatism are largely exaggerated. Various studies indicate that such is the case. Despite the law prohibiting divorce, the number of state-granted annulments is high. Despite a prohibition on abortion, a 1994 study by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in New York estimates an average of 437 clandestine abortions take place each day.

And "Last Temptation" has never been screened in neighboring Argentina either, even though Argentina is considered a more liberal society. (Chile's film commission this month approved the controversial movie for the 18-year-old-plus viewing audience, although the movie's distributors say they will probably wait to screen it until after Christmas to avoid unduly provoking sensibilities.)

What goes on behind the faade

More important, some Chileans say, is figuring out why Chile lives a two-tier existence, one of image and one of reality. "What has to be understood is that Chile is a country of appearances," says Fanny Gomez, a worker for Chile's Socialist Party. "There is what appears on the surface, and then what appears behind the faade."

Observers offer at least two explanations for this disconnect between image and reality. First, the country's major media are socially conservative powers that project the conservative image while warning against the threats of social change - many of which they say are coming from outside the country. And second, a brutal and frightening military dictatorship that only ended seven years ago resulted in a population that silently goes about the business of social change without demanding that the government acknowledge the changes in any way.