Alan Greenspan and Your Wallet
WASHINGTON AND NEW YORK
GREG WEAVER isn't an economist - but he's been closely following the recent actions of the US Federal Reserve.Skip to next paragraph
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The San Diego defense contractor is about to purchase a new home, and he consciously delayed locking in a mortgage rate before the Fed met last week. The reason: He figured that Fed officials would trim short-term interest rates to maintain economic growth and that his own rate would be lower if he waited.
His prediction was right on the money. After the US central bank lowered its key federal funds one-quarter of a point last Thursday, Mr. Weaver's prospective mortgage rate went down one-eighth. That will cut $50 from his monthly payment - and he figures it might drop further still. "That's at least $600 a year saved," he says. "I can find better things to spend that on."
An example of Washington savvy from someone whose job depends on Uncle Sam? Partly. But Weaver's tale may be part of a larger story: in recent years, an explosion in variable-rate financing has made American consumers extraordinarily sensitive to the results of federal interest rate actions.
Thus the Fed's decision last week to lower rates slightly could eventually ripple into the budgets of millions of households across the country. Though the rate cut was a mere sliver, it's the direction of the rate reduction, not the amount that is important.
The move shows Fed officials are committed to boosting the economy - and wide rate swings have taught many noneconomists that once the Fed starts pushing rates up or down, the trend can continue for some time. The cut, for instance, was the first since September 1992. The Fed has raised rates consistently since February 1994.
"People are now very acutely aware of interest rates and how interest rates affect their pocketbook," says Keith Gumbinger, an analyst an HSH Associates, a New Jersey financial-research firm.
The old 30-year fixed mortgage, for instance, is no longer the norm. More than half the mortgage loans now outstanding in the US are variable rate instruments, according to government statistics.
The now-popular home equity loan is also usually a variable rate instrument. And about 3 out of 4 credit cards now charge consumers variable rates on outstanding balances, notes Robert McKinley, president of RAM Research Corporation, a credit research firm in Frederick, Md.
When interest rates rose last year, consumer spending "dampened," Mr. McKinley says. Last week's short-term rate reduction by the Fed won't show up in credit card bills until October, he adds. Some further rate cuts "might put consumers in a better mood to use their cards during the coming Christmas shopping season," he says.
But McKinley has put his finger on the big question about the recent Fed action. Will it be a blip, a one-time reduction taken by Fed officials still determined to keep interest rates up to fight inflation? Or will further signs of weakening in the economy convince the Fed that more rate reductions are necessary, spreading easier credit throughout the country and prompting more consumer spending and business activity, to ward off recession?
THERE'S little question that the nation turned an important corner in the business cycle last week when the Fed lowered from 6 to 5.75 percent its key Federal funds rate - the amount banks charge each other for overnight loans.
From mid-1990 until September '92, Fed officials had steadily cut rates as means of fighting the early-'90s recession. Then from February 1994 through February 1995, the Fed slowly raised rates, trying to cool what it saw as an overheated US economy.