Mass Media's Mega-Man
IN the cyberworld beyond governments, run by electronic traders in finance, information, and amusements, Rupert Murdoch is the single most dominant force. He is well on his way toward forming the first truly global multimedia network.Skip to next paragraph
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The $4.5 million advance that his HarperCollins publishers had offered new Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich for two books would have been a modest expenditure for an enterprise that, in 1990, Mr. Murdoch plucked from a tidal wave of debt more than $7 billion deep.
The Gingrich book deal is still on, despite his decision to forgo the advance against sales. It represents simply another raised eyebrow in an audacious chain of Murdoch-generated astonishments in which he has bested competitors, sovereign governments, entrenched print unions, and burned-out senior executives. ``My past,'' he has told a biographer, ``consists of a series of interlocking wars.'' The booty Murdoch has collected over four decades comprises media holdings in every continent save Africa. His global political influence is profound.
The ``footprint'' of his enterprises stretches from Australia to Canada, from China and India across the United States. Within the embrace of his holding entity, the Australia-based News Corporation, is an audience of more than three-fourths of the world's population. It encompasses Star TV, supplying news, movies, and shows to all of Asia and the Middle East; BSkyB over Britain and Europe; a TV cable system spanning 80 percent of Latin America; the Fox television network; the 20th-Century Fox film studios; the FX cable network in the US; 35 percent of the newspapers in Britain, including the august Times and Sunday Times of London; and the New York Post. His TV Guide magazine has the largest circulation in the US. He's been dubbed ``the international Citizen Kane.'' A British Labour Party official complains: ``The unregulated growth of Mr. Murdoch's empire is an affront to a democratic society.''
A competitor, The New York Times, attacks as a ``serious tactical and ethical mistake'' Gingrich's book deal when Murdoch's media empire ``is vitally interested in US government policy on broadcasting legislation'' worth tens of millions to him.
One of Murdoch's ``interlocking wars'' right now involves NBC's petition to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It alleges that the News Corporation illegally acquired the stations that are the heart of Fox Broadcasting Company, the burgeoning ``fourth network.'' The petition specifically asserts that Murdoch concealed in 1985 the role of his Australian company in purchasing six Metromedia stations in major markets, now the core of Fox. The FCC forbids foreign ownership of more than 25 percent interest in US stations.
Sensing an early kill, Rep. David Bonior of Michigan, the incoming Democratic Party whip, has pointed to Republican support for proposed legislation to remove the foreign ownership ban. Advance or no, Gingrich is still in a position to further Murdoch's cause.
NBC, owned by General Electric, is no slouch in global hand-to-hand combat. It is leading the assault against Murdoch on behalf of CBS and ABC because the Fox network is literally shaking apart the domination of American broadcasting by the three traditional networks.
Against immense odds, Fox's network has sprouted into some 200 stations. It is stealing the younger audiences that advertisers crave, along with advertisers who previously patronized the ``big three.'' Fox's ratings are growing. After a shaky start, Fox scored a 30 percent rise in advertising in 1994, according to Murdoch. Washington Post TV critic Tom Shales complains that to do this, Fox ``has lowered the bottom standard of program quality ... outstooping the other networks'' with ``America's Most Wanted,'' ``Beverly Hills 90210,'' ``Melrose Place,'' ``Studs,'' and the tabloid ``A Current Affair.''