Many Russian Parties Are called
THE RUSSIAN VOTE
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The party has sought support in regions and in the ethnic-based republics. It is a potential partner in a coalition government with Russia's Choice and other pro-reform parties.Skip to next paragraph
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Party propaganda has stressed Russian national pride and social conservatism as major themes. It seeks to distinguish itself from Russia's Choice by backing a more gradual approach to reforms and more support for state-run industry. Civic Union
This group originally formed in 1992 as a coalition of the Democratic Party of Russia, the People's Party of Free Russia headed by Vice President Alexander Rutskoi, and the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. The Civic Union is now largely reduced to the Industrialists Union, an organization consisting mainly of directors of large state-run industry led by Arkady Volsky.
Civic Union has backing from many enterprise directors but it has shown little ability to generate popular support, despite buying a large amount of time on television for its election campaign broadcasts.
Civic Union supports the market transition but strongly opposes the government's ``shock therapy'' policies. It seeks to slow privatization, ensure a flow of credits to state-run industry, protect domestic producers against foreign competition and index wages and prices. Civic Union seeks to re-establish the Soviet Union, in some ``voluntary'' form, moving immediately to a close economic federation. Democratic Party of Russia
Anticommunist Nikolai Travkin organized this party in 1990, as one of the first new political parties formed in Russia. Originally part of the Democratic Russia movement, it left because of opposition to dissolution of the Soviet Union and later joined the more conservative Civic Union, which it left earlier this year to disassociate itself from Mr. Rutskoi's anti-Yeltsin stance.
The Democratic Party has a strong network of regional party organizations, due to its relatively long existence and inner discipline, but no clear ideological identity. It supports private property and the market but attacks the current reforms for liberalizing prices under conditions of a state monopoly over most production. It calls generally for restoration of state regulation and for defense of the living standards of average Russians.
The party harshly attacks Yeltsin and his constitution, accusing him of promoting personal dictatorship. Agrarian Party
The party is the outgrowth of the Agrarian Union, a parliamentary grouping consisting of heads of collective and state farms and state agro-industry. It has a strong base in Russia's still-largely collectivized rural sector.
The Agrarian Union was a key part of Russian Unity, the banned anti-Yeltsin bloc in the former parliament. Many members of that group and the banned nationalist National Salvation Front are running under the Agrarian Party banner. It is also very closely identified in membership and program with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
The party calls for massive state support for agriculture. While acknowledging the right for private property to exist, it favors preservation of collective farms and criticizes Yeltsin's decree on land privatization. It opposes Yeltsin's economic reforms. Communist Party of the Russian Federation
The largest and most moderate of the various Communist groups that emerged as successors to the banned Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Formed in 1993 as a united grouping of several communist organizations, it is led by Gennady Zyuganov, who has a more nationalist approach and was a leader of the National Salvation Front.
The Communists were part of the anti-Yeltsin bloc in the former parliament but were not involved in the armed resistance in October. Initially banned after those events, it was allowed to resume participation in the elections.
The Communists back a mixed economy, a reformed socialism that would include some forms of private ownership. They strongly oppose the current market reforms. They lament the demise of the Soviet Union and advocate a return to some form of union. The Party accuses Yeltsin of preparing a dicatorship and calls for rejection of his constitution. Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
The most extremist party in the election, the LDP is the creation of neo-fascist politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky, who won 6 million votes in the 1991 Russian presidential race. Mr. Zhirinovsky claims to be an anticommunist and vaguely in favor of a market economy.
But his main appeal is Russian nationalism, calling for restoration of the Russian Empire, the protection of Russians living in former Soviet republics, and return of Russia as a superpower. He has toned down some of his rhetoric for his well-financed campaign and is an effective campaigner on television.
While close to the communist and nationalist parties, Zhirinovsky has also carved out his own stance. He supports the Yeltsin constitution, saying he is in favor of a strong presidential system, and supported the dissolution of the former parliament.