THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 85TH ANNIVERSARY

Nov. 25, 1908 Something In a Name By Mary Baker G. Eddy

I HAVE given the name to all the Christian Science periodicals. The first was THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE JOURNAL, designed to put on record the divine Science of Truth; the second I entitled SENTINEL, intended to hold guard over Truth, Life and Love; the third, DER HEROLD DER CHRISTIAN SCIENCE, to proclaim the universal activity and availability of Truth; the next I named MONITOR, to spread undivided the Science that operates unspent. The object of the MONITOR is to injure no man, but to bless all mankind. Jan. 29, 1914 Heir to Throne of Austria And His Wife Shot Bomb Is Also Thrown Special Cable to the Monitor from its European Bureau - Vienna

THE capital of Bosnia was yesterday the scene of another of those terrible incidents in the history of the house of Hapsburg. The heir to the throne of Austria and his wife were fatally shot in the streets of Serajevo by a Servian student, Princip. The first shot struck the archduke, and the second the archduchess, who was endeavoring to cover him.

The maneuvers of the Bosnian army had brought the archduke to Serajevo. On Sunday morning he left the barracks at 10 o'clock to drive to the town hall. On his way a bomb was thrown at him by a printer named Gabrinovitch.

He appears to have warded it off with his arm with the result that it fell into the roadway where an explosion inflicted a few scratches on the attendants in the following carriage.

Having satisfied himself that practically no one was injured the archduke drove to the town hall. He was received by the burgomeister and town council, but before the former could commence his speech the archduke interfered with the remark that he had come to visit the capital of Bosnia and had been greeted by a bomb thrown at him in the street. After this he directed the burgomeister to proceed.

On completion of the ceremony he and the archduchess reentered their carriages and drove to the girls' high school. After stopping the motor here he proceeded and had just reached the junction of Franz Josef Strasse and Rudolf Strasse when Princip fired his fatal shots. The motor was hurried to Konak to obtain medical help, but it was too late....

The crime of Serajevo may have been an anarchist one, but it is equally likely to have been purely political. The harsh policy adopted toward the Servian kingdom and the determination to build up Albania at its expense had indeed been regarded largely as inspired by him.... March 10, 1922 Disobedience Policy in India Gets out of Gandhi's Control By an Anglo-Indian - London

Mahatma Gandhi, mystic, ascetic, and revolutionary, whose preaching of civil disobedience in India has been followed by serious disorder in that far-off land, is a small, lean, brown-skinned man to whom one would hardly give a second glace if one met him in an Indian street.

When I last saw him he was addressing a densely crowded meeting of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta. At that time Mr. Gandhi was chiefly known for work he had done in ameliorating the social condition of emigrant coolies from India in the Transvaal and Natal. In politics he was a moderate, and he was an energetic advocate of temperance. Only gradually has he since grown into a visionary fanatic, unable to realize in his mental exaltation that he has been creating among a people singularly susceptible to emotional appeals, conditions of excitement and race hatred he is quite unable to control.

After the visit of the Prince of Wales to Bombay, when his preaching was followed by riots, in which some 50 people were killed and 200 injured, he retired in disgust and declared he was going to fast until his followers had purged themselves of violence - a threat he was subsequently prevailed upon by his friends to withdraw.

His bona fides had been so obvious, however, that the British authorities long thought that to leave him at large was preferable to making a martyr of him as would be the case if they deprived him of freedom. In consequence of growing disturbances following upon his preaching they have now reversed this decision, and E.S. Montagu, British Secretary of State for India, who at one time publicly claimed Mr. Gandhi for his friend, has been driven to admit that it may become necessary to arrest him. May 2, 1939 Television Test at Fair Reveals Marked Advance By Volney D. Hurd, Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor - New York

Fascinated groups of men and women, jamming sidewalks at several store windows April 30, indicated an interest that presages the success of television which was inaugurated at the Fair. Two hours of events at the World's Fair grounds, climaxed by the televising of President Roosevelt as he spoke, opening the Fair, made up the first spot news program in official American television, received by probably 200 sets in Greater New York.

Of course, the novelty helped to hold interest. But to be able to watch happenings at the Fair for nearly three hours showed possibilities of television in giving lengthy pickups of news events.

One complaint against television has been that continual looking was tiring. But not a single one of some dozen spectators in the NBC office where we viewed the affair reported any fatigue. Aug. 7, 1945 Japs Say Atomic Bomb Halted Trains By the War Editor of The Christian Science Monitor

THE new atomic bomb is attached to a parachute and explodes in midair, according to the Tokyo Radio. While the details of yesterday's earth-shaking atomic attack on the city and military depot of Hiroshima remained - so far as American sources were concerned - cloaked in a cloud of debris eight miles high and reinforced by an iron-clad censorship, the first dazed enemy reaction came over the ether waves.

The first intimation of what had happened was an announcement that train service in the Hiroshima area had been halted. Several hours later the Japanese were still at a loss to explain the destructiveness of the explosion and unable to realize that it was the work of a single missile.

Thus the Japanese version of the attack said that shortly after eight o'clock yesterday morning a small number of enemy planes appeared over the city of Hiroshima and dropped a number of new type bombs.

As a result of this attack, it added, a considerable number of houses in the city were demolished while fires were started at several points.

This description of the damage appeared like an understatement which ill-accorded with the hysterical tone in which other radiocasters denounced the ``diabolical'' new weapon. Seeking to derive some consolation from this new disaster, the enemy attributed employment of the new weapon to Allied ``impatience at the slow progress of the projected invasion of Japan's mainland.'' Oct. 5, 1957 Made-in-U.S.S.R. `Moon' Circles Earth; Space Era Advent Jolts Washington By Robert C. Cowen, Natural Science Editor of The Christian Science Monitor

There's a brand new ``moon'' circling the earth and it carries the label ``made in the U.S.S.R.''

Until Soviet rocket scientists put this first artificial satellite into the sky, unmanned flight beyond the atmosphere for any length of time has been only a hope and a dream. But today there is a manmade object circling round and round the earth out there which, to one way of thinking, is the first crude ``space ship.''

The old familiar world of vast continents and trackless seas will never be the same again. It has become in practical fact what we have known it is in theory - a planet, to be girdled by the machines of men.

Not even the swift around-the-world flights of jet aircraft have brought this fact home with the impact of that little sphere of metal that every 95 minutes is sweeping over the United States. Nov. 25, 1963 U.S. Rallies in Crisis Continuity of Presidency By Richard L. Strout, Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor - Washington

AND so my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.''

The American presidency is a continuing office. These words were uttered by a President slain by a sniper's bullet in Dallas, Texas, but it was a President still - though another man - who returned to Washington, and with heavy heart urged the nation to give him its help, and picked up the awesome responsibility of Chief Executive.

As Lyndon Baines Johnson succeeded John Fitzgerald Kennedy as 36th President of the United States a stunned nation asked how such things could be, but at the same time rallied behind the figure in the White House, as it always has rallied at every great crisis.

Over the Pacific a lonely military transport plane suddenly turned on its course and made a great circle back to Washington. It bore Secretary of State Dean Rusk and other Cabinet members who had been heading to a meeting in Tokyo. Monstrous Act' Denounced

A special train pulled out of a town in the Ukraine and, according to reports, sped back to Moscow, carrying Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev who had just learned of the assassination. Eulogies of the murdered President were heard over all Soviet news media.

In Washington, away from public view, a stoic widow of 34, who had held her wounded husband in her arms in a vain dash to the hospital, and still maintained her composure as she sat beside the coffin on the return trip to the capital, told her two children that they were fatherless. July 22, 1969 Mankind embraces the moon - A milestone, not a finish line By Richard L. Strout, Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor - Monday morning

MAN walked on the moon and made it look easy.

Now mankind must find something new to dream about.

There were two peaks of drama as Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. completed the first part of their great adventure, and command pilot Michael Collins, almost forgotten, circled above them.

[The astronauts successfully blasted off from the moon early Monday afternoon on the first stage of their journey back to earth. At this writing their return to lunar orbit and rendezvous with the command module remained to be executed.]

The first was as the two astronauts separated their spidery spacecraft ``Eagle'' from the command ship ``Columbia'' and made their hazardous descent. Hundreds of millions on earth heard the interchange with Houston as they neared the Sea of Tranquility.

At the very last minute the computerized pilot aimed the fragile craft at a ridge of rocks on the projected landing site. Television viewers on earth could only know that the countdown was in its final seconds. Neil Armstrong grabbed the control and piloted the module beyond the original landing spot. Then, clear and firm came the call:

``Houston!'' Astronaut Armstrong paused and took a breath. ``Tranquility base here. The Eagle has landed.''

Penning a Fresh Start

For the Middle East

March 27, 1979 Egypt-Israel treaty gives old adversaries time, but long-term risks remain By Daniel Southerland, Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor - Washington

WITH a few strokes of the pen Egypt and Israel have cut through three decades of psychological barriers, opening the way to a new era of conciliation between them.

If nothing else, the newly signed Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty stands as a monument to Egyptian President Sadat's first strong battering of those barriers through his precedent-shattering trip to Jerusalem 17 months ago.

With the signing of the treaty on the White House lawn at 2 p.m. on March 26, Mr. Sadat gave Israel much of the recognition which it has sought from the most populous and powerful of Arab nations.

It was the first peace treaty to be signed between an Arab nation and the Jewish state, and it appeared to reduce considerably the chances that any combination of Arab nations would go to war against Israel any time over the next few years. . . .

``This peace treaty will be permanent,'' said President Carter. . . . Nov. 13, 1989 Euphoric East Berliners Stream Past Open Wall By Mark M. Sheehan, Special to The Christian Science Monitor - East Berlin

Today the German people are the happiest people in the world,'' declared West Berlin Mayor Walter Momper. None of the half million visitors to Berlin this weekend would disagree.

This city had been swept along in a tidal wave of euphoria ever since last Thursday's announcement of new travel freedoms by the East German government. At a rate estimated by police as reaching tens of thousands an hour, East Germans are streaming into Berlin. Most are coming for a day or two. Border guards merely glance at identity papers and wave the East German citizens through checkpoints in the Berlin Wall.

Thousands of people climbed onto the wall in front of the Brandenburg gate. They stayed there all day Friday. Pieces of the wall were broken off by hammers and pick-axes by crowds chanting, ``The wall must go.''

Their efforts were more symbolic than effective. The largest holes in the wall were made by the East Germans themselves. Starting at just after midnight Saturday morning, East German construction crews with cranes removed huge concrete slabs for the first of nine new border crossings into West Berlin.

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