1652: Dutch reach Cape.
1795: First British occupation of Cape.
1806: Second British Occupation.
1836: Dutch-descended Afrikaners trek north to evade British rule.
1882: Boers proclaim South African Republic in Transvaal Province.
1899: British annex Transvaal and Orange Free State provinces. Anglo-Boer war erupts.
1902: Boers are defeated.
1910: Union of South Africa is founded, uniting two British provinces and two Boer Republics. Britain fails to secure rights for blacks.
1912: African National Congress is founded.
1948: National Party wins election, implements apartheid.
1960: ANC is banned. Indirect African representation in parliament is abolished.
1961: South Africa quits British Commonwealth.
1964: Nelson Mandela and ANC colleagues are jailed.
1984: Parliamentary representation is extended to mixed-race and Indian minorities.
1990: President Frederik de Klerk legalizes political dissent and frees Mandela.
1991: Apartheid laws are scrapped. Talks begin.
Dec. 17, 1993: Parties agree to plan for transition to democracy.
April 27, 1994: First nonracial ballot. Coalition government is established.
October 1994: Elections for local governments.
1999: Elections for unqualified majority rule.