Despair Is Deep in Post-War Iraq
Shortages, high prices, unemployment take toll on families throughout battered nation
DRASTICALLY impoverished by the Gulf war and economic embargo, weakened by malnutrition and disease, and fearful of renewed attacks by coalition forces, many Iraqis are giving way to despair.This is evident in conversations with scores of Iraqis in Baghdad and interviews with international relief workers who have been traveling and working in other parts of the country. "We feel we cannot take more wars and deaths. But I do not really see a big difference between a reeruption of war and the continuation of the current conditions.... Both will lead to our death," says Marlyn, a 25-year-old employee at one of Baghdad's hotels who lost a brother and a cousin during the eight-year Iran-Iraq war and another cousin in the Gulf war. Iraqi officials say that 11,000 people, mostly women and children, have died from malnutrition and water-borne diseases due to the destruction of electric and water-purification plants in allied bombing raids. Relief workers are unable to confirm the official figure but predict mass deaths if the country's needs for medicine and food are not met immediately. United Nations agencies and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) warn of impending famine as cases of moderate and severe malnutrition are reported across the country.Skip to next paragraph
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Making ends meet "We are seeing distressing signs of people selling their belongings and cases of malnutrition," says Ezio Gianni Murzi, a doctor with UNICEF in Baghdad. Dr. Murzi predicts famine of "the kind that Europe had suffered from after World War II." A United Nations committee recommended last week that Iraq be allowed to sell its oil and use part of its frozen assets in the West to buy food and medicine. At this stage the UN and some 20 NGOs working here are spending $200 million, excluding salaries and other logistical support, to provide Iraq with food and medicine. According to the UN, Iraq needs at least $2 billion to cover its immediate food needs alone. Thus the relief program covers barely 5 percent to 6 percent of the Iraq's needs. NGO officials warn, however, that their relief programs are inadequate. Even allocation of more money for the relief programs, some NGO officials argue, will not be sufficient and may be used by the US and others to justify prolonging the sanctions. "The danger is that the existence of the relief program will be used as an excuse to keep the sanctions. The relief program simply cannot become a long-term welfare program," cautions Jim Fine, a representative of the Quaker relief organization here. Malnutrition is caused by shortages of basic foodstuffs, especially milk and baby formula, high prices, and a sharp decline in Iraqis' purchasing power. The urban middle class is seeing a significant decline in its standard of living, while the poor hover on the verge of starvation. Many families are selling personal belongings - jewelry and electronics - and have cut their daily diet to the minimum. Mahmoud, a music teacher has taken on three other part-time jobs, to secure food for his seven-member family. Although Mahmoud earns 1,000 Iraqi dinars a month - $3,000 at the official rate of exchange, but less than $200 at black-market prices - he considers himself "well off." Yet, after paying the rent, he is only able to provide the minimum needs of his family. The vast majority of Iraqis have to survive on much less. Those civil servants who remain employed earn a fixed salary of 150 to 200 dinars a month.