Monterey Park Seeks Harmony
As California city tips from Anglo to Asian, goodwill gets upper hand over confrontation. HUMAN RELATIONS: ONE CITY'S TRAVAIL
MONTEREY PARK, CALIF.
AT first glance Monterey Park seems a serene and well-kept middle-class suburb. But beneath its calm exterior are rumblings of confrontation, adjustment, accommodation. The reason: Over the past 15 years, the city's population mix has gone from 85 percent Anglo to more than one-half Asian and nearly one-third Hispanic. Its commercial districts appear utterly Far Eastern, with Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese bakeries, restaurants, real estate offices, supermarkets, and video stores. It has five Chinese newspapers and a Chinese-language movie theater.Skip to next paragraph
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``In learning how to deal with increasing diversity in race and ethnicity, and struggling to find common vision from differing ideas, [Monterey Park] is a reflection of what's to come for America,'' says Linda Wong, a resident of the city of some 60,000 people and executive director for California Tomorrow.
People of Chinese origin comprise more than half Monterey Park's population; they own 60 percent of its land and 60 percent of its businesses. It is the second-largest enclave for Asian immigrants in the United States, after New York's Chinatown.
Monterey Park's experience is by no means unique. ``Minorities are becoming majorities not only in places like California, but in the center of the country,'' says John Horton, an associate professor of sociology at UCLA. ``The lessons of Monterey Park will be repeated elsewhere,'' he says.
Those lessons - that clashes over language, development, education, and quality of life can bring conciliation through accommodation - are still in process here. But after a long period of almost daily confrontation, which produced headlines in the local and national press, there is evidence that city is coming to terms with its transformation.
Monterey Park's dramatic change began in the 1970s at the hand of a Taiwanese developer named Frederich Hsieh. After buying up large parcels of land, he promoted the town to wealthy businessmen in Taiwan and Hong Kong as a Chinese Beverly Hills.
``It became a haven for big-time Asian investors,'' says Frank J. Arcuri, publisher of a local investigative quarterly. ``They came in and tore down what was here and built their own, Chinese style.'' Resenting the replacement of American-style grocery and clothing stores by all-Asian shops, whites peppered the press with comments that the town no longer resembled anything ``American.''
Mayor Barry Hatch castigated immigrants, claiming they didn't care about American culture, traditions, and history but rather were ``here to make money. Monterey Park's present mayor, Judy Chu, says: ``It was definitely a period of severe racial tension.''
One City Council resolution declared that English should be the official language of the US. Major businesses, including a car dealership that was the largest taxpayer in town, pulled up stakes. They were replaced by an influx of all-Asian stores.
From City Hall to the parks and malls, different cultural norms and expectations clashed - on store and restaurant hours, school curriculum, and on language and development issues. Anglos, Hispanics, and Asians vied for influence through every venue possible: City Council seats, neighborhood associations, civic coalitions.
The two-year study just finished by Horton documents the outcome: recognition that restrictive, containment policies aimed at immigrants did not solve underlying issues such as unplanned residential/commercial development, population growth and congestion, and recession.
There was a shift in local politics from confrontation to pragmatism.