Mum's the word on likely US strategic arms changes. US negotiators hope a strategic arms agreement will force the Soviet Union to restructure its forces and enhance world stability. But such an arms deal will also require the US to do some restructuring of its own - a subject Washington doesn't even want to discuss publicly.
There is a catch in effecting the West's desired restructuring of Soviet strategic forces in the direction of stability through strategic arms control. The catch is that the United States also must restructure its forces in the direction of stability. This sets off alarm bells in the military services, since rejigging procurement programs is always expensive and sucks money away from existing pet projects.Skip to next paragraph
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So sensitive is this issue that no American official is talking publicly about what changes would actually take place under a strategic arms reduction treaty (START). And some senior officials are suggesting in private that the biggest barrier to concluding a treaty at this point is not Soviet-US differences over sea-launched cruise missiles (SLCMs) or even President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or ``star wars''), but American-American gridlock over developing a US mobile missile.
On the face of it, such a hang-up is curious. Few question the need to get away from the hair-trigger combination of enormous threat but enormous vulnerability inherent in multiple-warhead intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in fixed silos. The US, unlike the Soviet Union, recognized the coming vulnerability of stationary missiles years ago, and has dispersed five-sixths of its strategic warheads to far more survivable submarines and airplanes, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
What is at issue, however, is the specific treatment of the 16 percent of US strategic warheads deployed on fixed ICBMs - and whose ox gets gored in the service responsible for America's land-based strategic missiles, the Air Force. In recent years - once the Reagan administration overcame its earlier scare about a ``window of vulnerability'' - the administration has inclined to leave the ICBMs as they are without worrying about them. The reasoning has been that the ``deterrence'' of any Soviet nuclear attack remains strong, since the other 84 percent of American warheads on submarines and bombers more than suffice to assure a devastating retaliation should Moscow launch an attack and wipe out the bulk of American ICBMs.
The Air Force in the past five years has been far from united in this view, though. Some officers have been pinning their hopes on the panacea of a space shield. A very few have been arguing that the US should move to less vulnerable mobile basing of its ICBMs. And some traditionalists still begrudge any further diversion of appropriations from good old-fashioned planes to new-fangled missiles.
In addition, some hardliners inside and outside the Air Force have regarded Washington's official insistence in the START negotiations on a total ban on mobile missiles as the ideal spoiler to jinx arms control altogether, since the Soviets have already begun to deploy two mobile missiles and would never accept such a ban.
The result has been what one think-tank analyist with high-ranking Air Force contacts calls a decade-old ``history of confusion, chaos, and disagreement [on ICBMs] that is awesome.'' Only in the past year - under the leadership of Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Larry Welch, Gen. John Chain, commander in chief of the Strategic Air Command, and Defense Secretary Frank Carlucci - has the thinking of key Air Force generals begun to coalesce around the idea of developing a rail-mobile system, the analyst said.