Egypt: from Mubarak's ouster to Morsi's

A timeline of post-revolution Egypt

Hussein Malla/AP
A firework fired by opponents of ousted President Mohamed Morsi explodes over the supporters during clashes in downtown Cairo, Monday, July 15. Thousands of supporters of deposed President Morsi held mass rallies and marched in the streets Monday to demand his return to office. The protest turned violent in downtown Cairo as police fired tear gas at pro-Morsi protesters who burned tires, threw rocks and blocked traffic flow on a main roadway running through the heart of the capital.

Egypt's past 2-1/2 years have been chaotic, from ousting longtime strongman Hosni Mubarak in January 2011 to a military overthrow of its first democratically elected president, with a dissolved parliament, a rushed constitution, and episodic violence in between.

  • Jan. 25, 2011: Mass protests against then-President Hosni Mubarak begin.
  • Feb. 11: The military abandons support for Mr. Mubarak, who steps down. A 16-month period of direct military rule begins.
  • Jan. 21, 2012: The results for Egypt's parliamentary election are announced. The Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party takes 47 percent of the vote, with the even more conservative Islamist Nour party coming in second with 24 percent.
  • March 31: The Muslim Brotherhood nominates a presidential candidate, breaking a promise not to seek the presidency made the previous year.
  • June 14: An Egyptian court annuls the parliamentary election, claiming the laws governing it were unconstitutional.
  • June 24: Mohamed Morsi narrowly wins the presidency, over a longtime Mubarak aide, with 51 percent of the vote. He becomes the only leader in Egypt with anything resembling a democratic mandate.
  • Nov. 19: All secularists and liberals on the constitutional drafting committee quit, saying Islamist views were being forced into the document.
  • Nov. 22: President Morsi claims sweeping powers beyond judicial oversight, outraging many Egyptians.
  • Dec. 8: After large, angry demonstrations, Morsi rescinds his decree, but the damage to public trust has been done.
  • Dec. 15: The Muslim Brotherhood-written Constitution passes in a referendum by 64 percent of voters. Opposition groups say the document is a disaster.
  • April 7, 2013: A Muslim mob attacks a funeral for Christians killed in a sectarian attack at a Coptic cathedral in Cairo. It is one of several sectarian incidents in the spring and summer against Christians and Shiites that Morsi does not strongly condemn.
  • June 30: Mass protests calling for Morsi's ouster begin in Cairo, Alexandria, and other Egyptian cities. The huge crowds stay on the streets for days.
  • July 3: In response to the mass protests and national paralysis, the military deposes Morsi, setting the stage for further protests and violence on the streets.
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