Major gay marriage cases in federal court and where they stand

Battles over same-sex marriage have been raging in the federal courts for several years. Two could reach the US Supreme Court within a year: one challenging California's ban on gay marriage under Proposition 8, and the other seeking to invalidate the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Here are the cases to follow.

3. The challenge to DOMA: Federal appeals court in San Francisco

Papo and her wife Weiss walk down the steps at City Hall after marrying on the first full day of legal same-sex marriages in San Francisco in 2008.

At the Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco, a three-judge panel is set to hear a California-based challenge to DOMA. The case, Karen Golinski v. USOPM, stems from a federal judge's ruling in February that DOMA is unconstitutional. The appeals court case is docketed as 12-15388 and 12-15409. Briefing is set for this summer.

The case is expected to be appealed to the US Supreme Court.

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