Amid Bali trash crisis, local heroes fight to keep island clean

As tourism rapidly increases in Bali, garbage collection services and infrastructure have failed to keep up. But citizens are making efforts with initiatives like self-funded apps, green camps for children, and volunteer cleanups, to counter the growing trash problem.

Johannes P. Christo/Thomson Reuters Foundation
Tourists and local residents walk across a beach polluted with plastic trash in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia on April 10, 2018. Officials have declared the amount of trash in and around Bali to be a 'garbage emergency.'

Five years ago, tour guide Wayan Aksara noticed that more and more visitors he showed around the Indonesian island of Bali were complaining about garbage on its once-pristine beaches.

Bali's mounting rubbish problem was also becoming personal for Mr. Aksara, who lives near Saba beach – an undeveloped area close to the holiday resort of Sanur, which faces a constant battle with trash washed onto its shores from a nearby river.

"Every time we drove around, our guests ... would comment about it not being clean and the large amount of plastic," said Aksara. "They would say the trash is bad, that tourism here is not sustainable, and ask what we are doing about it."

Aksara joined – and is now chairman of – Trash Hero Indonesia, a community group with more than 20 chapters across Indonesia and about 12 on Bali. It uses social media to organize weekly garbage-collection events for volunteers.

Aksara, a father of two, also gives talks at schools and community events on how to manage waste better.

Like many parts of Asia, the Indonesian archipelago of more than 17,000 islands has a fast-growing economy and population, and a huge coastline with many densely populated cities.

These factors have created a "perfect storm" for garbage in the surrounding seas, said Susan Ruffo, a managing director at the US-based nonprofit group Ocean Conservancy.

Garbage collection services and infrastructure have largely failed to keep pace with rapid development.

Now, as awareness rises, civil society groups like Trash Hero are playing an important role in Bali's push to keep its famous beaches and temples free of rubbish.

On Saba beach, surrounded by coconut trees and grazing cows, the garbage strewn about includes toothpaste tubes, shoes, plastic bottles, diapers, drinking straws, and cigarette packets.

"There is a plastic problem in Bali.... We need time but we [have] started already," Aksara told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Big things start from small things."

Globally, more than 8.8 million tons of plastics are dumped into the ocean each year, scientists say – about one truckload per minute.

China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Thailand are the top five culprits, said Ocean Conservancy's Ms. Ruffo.

Aside from the impacts on human health and wildlife, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, a 21-nation forum, has put the cost to the region's tourism, fishing, and shipping industries at about $1.3 billion per year.

Stung by criticism, Indonesia's President Joko Widodo – who has targeted "10 new Balis" across the archipelago to boost tourism – has been quick to act.

Last year, Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, Indonesia's coordinating minister for maritime affairs, launched a national action plan pledging up to $1 billion to cut ocean waste 70 percent by 2025.

In June, local media reported the government had teamed up with Muslim clerics to tell their more than 100 million followers to choose reusable bags over plastic ones.

Jenna Jambeck, a University of Georgia professor who specializes in plastic waste and marine debris, said Indonesia had become a leader on the issue out of a desire "to protect their amazing resources and beautiful country."

Bali's most popular tourist beaches are now cleaned of trash at least once a day by local authorities using heavy machinery.

Mass clean-ups are organized at least three times a year on Bali and across Indonesia, bringing together tens of thousands of tourists and locals to tidy up communities.

Despite this, the rubbish problem on Bali was so bad late last year that officials declared a "garbage emergency."

"If you're finding plastic on the beach, it's already too late," said Ocean Conservancy's Ruffo. "It should never be there in the first place. How do you stop it at source? There is no one fix or silver bullet."

Tracing the origins of the trash on Bali's beaches is difficult, but experts estimate up to 80 percent comes from the island itself.

Rubbish collected from hotels and villages by informal workers is often dumped in rivers and then carried out to sea before eventually finding its way back to the coastline.

A rise in the use of plastic packaging over the last decade, coupled with increased wealth and consumption, has exacerbated the problem, experts told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Bali desperately needs to improve its landfill sites, invest in more recycling facilities, carry out regular trash collections, and expand its piped water supply, they added.

Businesses, meanwhile, should redesign products or change materials so they are easier to reuse or recycle, said Ms. Jambeck.

Governments also can make a difference by requiring a certain amount of recycled content in products, banning plastic bags, or taxing single-use plastics, she added. Based in Bali's cultural center of Ubud, local company Rumah Kompos has six trucks that collect waste from hotels and private homes. The trash is then separated at the company's depot to recycle, turn into compost or send to landfill.

A new $1-million recycling facility, funded by the government, will boost Rumah Kompos' capacity later this year, said manager Supardi Asmorobangun.

The facility will host local children at weekend green camps, with a cinema showing films on climate change and plastic waste, he said.

The company has also begun piloting a free reusable water bottle scheme at schools in Ubud.

"My dream for the next five years is for every village on Bali to do [rubbish] separation," Mr. Asmorobangun said. "We must do it now, not tomorrow."

New technologies and Asia's army of informal rubbish collectors and scavengers are also key tools, experts said.

At Sanur Kaja village in Denpasar, garbage gatherers are reaping the financial rewards of joining a pilot project run by Gringgo Trash Tech, reflected in a row of brand new motorcycles parked near the local authority's waste collection facility.

The company mapped out Denpasar and began a self-funded project last year using existing waste infrastructure to improve recycling and collection.

Apps and GPS helped create a zoning system in the village of 5,000 residents, enabling garbage gatherers to become better-organized and more efficient. As a result, they can collect more rubbish from more households to increase their earnings.

"If these guys stop working, this city will be shut down in less than a week," said Gringgo co-founder Olivier Pouillon.

Besides improving coordination with the local authority, Gringgo's app provides the latest prices for recyclable waste.

The system now serves about 60-65 percent of the village, with three times as much rubbish collected, said Mr. Pouillon.

"The quickest way to stop the pollution is to track where the waste is going, and that's exactly what we've done," he said. 

This story was reported by the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

You've read  of  free articles. Subscribe to continue.
Real news can be honest, hopeful, credible, constructive.
What is the Monitor difference? Tackling the tough headlines – with humanity. Listening to sources – with respect. Seeing the story that others are missing by reporting what so often gets overlooked: the values that connect us. That’s Monitor reporting – news that changes how you see the world.

Dear Reader,

About a year ago, I happened upon this statement about the Monitor in the Harvard Business Review – under the charming heading of “do things that don’t interest you”:

“Many things that end up” being meaningful, writes social scientist Joseph Grenny, “have come from conference workshops, articles, or online videos that began as a chore and ended with an insight. My work in Kenya, for example, was heavily influenced by a Christian Science Monitor article I had forced myself to read 10 years earlier. Sometimes, we call things ‘boring’ simply because they lie outside the box we are currently in.”

If you were to come up with a punchline to a joke about the Monitor, that would probably be it. We’re seen as being global, fair, insightful, and perhaps a bit too earnest. We’re the bran muffin of journalism.

But you know what? We change lives. And I’m going to argue that we change lives precisely because we force open that too-small box that most human beings think they live in.

The Monitor is a peculiar little publication that’s hard for the world to figure out. We’re run by a church, but we’re not only for church members and we’re not about converting people. We’re known as being fair even as the world becomes as polarized as at any time since the newspaper’s founding in 1908.

We have a mission beyond circulation, we want to bridge divides. We’re about kicking down the door of thought everywhere and saying, “You are bigger and more capable than you realize. And we can prove it.”

If you’re looking for bran muffin journalism, you can subscribe to the Monitor for $15. You’ll get the Monitor Weekly magazine, the Monitor Daily email, and unlimited access to

QR Code to Amid Bali trash crisis, local heroes fight to keep island clean
Read this article in
QR Code to Subscription page
Start your subscription today