1962-64: As an 18-year-old, served two years in Robben Island jail after being arrested for anti-apartheid activities.
1965-67: Worked as clerk in gold mine and also completed high school studies.
1970: Bachelor of Commerce degree from University of Fort Hare.
1976: Qualified as the country's first black accountant.
1977: Founded department of accounting at the University of Transkei.
1982: Earned master's degree in finance and international business at New York University in the United States.
1987: Principal, University of Transkei.
1990: Chairman, Economic Commission of the National African Federated Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
1991: President of the Black Management Forum.
Nov. 1992: Chairman of the Development Bank of Southern Africa.
March 1993: Chief executive of the Independent Development Trust.