Aromatic cooking of New Mexico
Sante Fe, N.M. — At sunset the mountains of the snow-capped Sangre de Christo Range in Santa Fe, N.M., are silhouetted like ragged layers of colored paper, all shades of purples and pinks. The aroma of pinon wood fires permeates the atmosphere.
The cooking of northern New Mexico is also colorful and aromatic, coming as it does from native American, Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo ancestry.
Fiery red and green chilies are used liberally. The Pueblo Indians were growing chilies when the Spanish arrived in 1539.
Today they can be seen, after the harvest and before the first frost, drying outside adobe homes on the ground or on the flat roofs, soon to be tied into ristras, or wreaths.
For use in cooking the chilies are first blistered in the oven, plunged into cold water, then peeled and seeded. They go into a staple of the kitchen, salsa, or chili sauce. It's used for everything from a dip for tortillas or sauce for enchiladas to a topping for hamburgers and chicken.
Just west of Santa Fe, the Anasazi, cliff-dwelling forebears of the Pueblo Indians, farmed the pinto bean and corn in haunting Frijoles Canyon, now Bandelier National Monument. They also hunted deer and rabbit and cooked stews in pitch-lined baskets by dropping hot rocks into them.
Corn was ground with a stone rolling pin or pounded on a flat stone with legs called a ''metate.'' Water was added, and tortillas were produced by frying on a hot flat stone. Blue corn, a New Mexico specialty, was also grown.
Later the Pueblos built beehive-shaped ovens called hornos outside their homes. Here the classic round pueblo bread was baked in the high heat after the coals were removed.
Pinon nuts were a staple, gathered by families in the autumn and roasted for use in stuffings, soups, and cakes.
A typical Santa Fe lunch today is a sandwich using Indian fry bread or tortillas as the base. Fillings may be pinto beans, avocado with bacon, hamburger, or sharp Cheddar cheese and lettuce, all covered with salsa and eaten with a fork.
Posole, a stew made of chicos - or hominy - pork, and red chili, may be served as a side dish. A wonderful dessert is sopaipillas, fried dough served warm with honey.
There are numerous excellent restaurants in the Santa Fe area that serve northern New Mexico dishes. One of the most charming is The Shed, located in Prince Patio, a cluster of low adobe buildings built in 1692 and entered through a courtyard.
Open for lunch only, the price for a substantial enchilada plate of blue corn tortillas covered with beans, cheese, onions, and salsa and served with French bread is just $3.40. The tiny, low-ceilinged rooms are decorated with murals and paintings of Pueblo Indian life.
On Canyon Road, where the art galleries are concentrated, The Haven offers a mixture of New Mexican, Greek, and nouvelle cuisine, all served the with home-baked bread.
North of Santa Fe is Taos and its famous pueblo and artists' colony. On the road into town is Casa de Valdez, a large and comfortable restaurant that specializes in hickory smoked meat barbecued in a pit on the premises and with a vibrant piquant barbecue sauce.
In Albuquerque, south of Santa Fe, there is the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center , a vast museum displaying bowls, baskets, rugs, and dioramas of life styles of the 19 pueblos in northern New Mexico.
The museum restaurant has typical New Mexico dishes such as green chili casserole, and chili con queso steak, cooked by the Pueblo Indians who operate the institution.
Ingredients for New Mexico-foods are available in supermarkets, Spanish groceries, and specialty food stores. Tortillas are easy to make using Quaker Oats Masa Harina cornmeal, with directions on the package. And there's nothing better than your own salsa.
Adapted from ''Pueblo Indian Cookbook,'' compiled and edited by Phyllis Hughes, Museum of New Mexico Press: Green Chili Salsa 2 quarts tomatoes, peeled and chopped fine 1 cup scallions, chopped fine 1/2 cup red bell pepper, chopped fine 1/2 cup hot green chili pepper, chopped fine 1 1/4 cups vinegar 1 cup sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1 teaspoon mustard seed
Combine all ingredients in a kettle and simmer, stirring frequently, for three to four hours until thick.
Cool and serve fresh or pour into hot, sterilized glasses and seal. Makes 1 quart.
Adapted from ''Cooking with a Silver Spoon,'' by Rosalie, The Pink Adobe: Chicken Burritos with Sour Cream 4 chicken breasts 1 small carrot, chopped 1 sprig parsley 4 tablespoons olive oil 1 clove garlic, chopped 1 1/2 cups canned green chilies 5 ripe tomatoes, skinned, chopped 2 medium onions, chopped fine 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano 1 tablespoon fresh cilantro (coriander), chopped 1/2 teaspoon cumin 1 pound sharp Cheddar cheese, grated 1 pint sour cream 12 flour tortillas Frying fat or lard
Combine chicken, parsley, and carrot, cover with water, and simmer 45 minutes. Cool, skin, bone and shred chicken. Saute garlic in olive oil, add chilies, tomatoes, onions, and spices. Cover with water and cook until thick, about 2 hours.
Add half the cheese and half the soured cream to chicken and mix.
Moisten tortillas in sauce then put 2 tablespoons sauce on each, fill with chicken mixture, and roll up.
Put 1/2 cup sauce in casserole, add tortillas in 1 layer, cover with sauce, about 2 tablespoons over each. Spread remaining soured cream on top. Sprinkle remaining cheese over all. Bake at 350 degrees F. 10 to 15 minutes.
Serve with roasted, peeled, and chopped green bell peppers, green chilies, both fresh and dried, olives, shredded lettuce. Serves 4 to 6.
Adapted from ''Comidas de New Mexico,'' by Lucy Delgado, Delgado Advertising and Public Relations: Sopaipillas 4 cups flour 3 tablespoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons sugar 3 tablespoons lard or vegetable shortening
Sift dry ingredients together, cut in shortening, add about 3/4 cup water to make a dry dough. Mix, then let stand 20 minutes. Roll out on floured board 1/4 -inch thick. Cut into 3-inch squares and deep fry in hot fat until golden. Serve with honey. Makes 4 dozen.