1. Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. 2. If equals be added to equals the wholes are equal. 3. If equals be taken from equals the remainders are equal.

4. If equals be added to unequals the wholes are unequal.

5. If equals be taken from unequals the remainders are unequal.

6. Things which are double of the same thing are equal to one another.

7. Things which are halves of the same thing are equal to one another.

8. Magnitudes which coincide with one another, that is, which exactly fill the same space, are equal to one another.

9. The whole is greater than its part.

10. Two straight lines cannot enclose a space.

11. All right angles are equal to one another.

12. If a straight line meet two straight lines, so as to make the two interior angles on the same side of it taken together less than two right angles , these straight lines, being continually produced, shall at length meet on that side on which are the angles which are less than two right angles.