Name: Arab Republic of Egypt. Government: republic under presidential rule. Universal suffrage over age 18. President: Hosni Mubarak. Area: 386,200 square miles, 2.8 percent cultivated. Population: 45 million, growing at 2.7 percent annually. Climate: mild winters, hot and dry summers. Language: Arabic (English and French widely understood). Religion: 92 percent Muslim (virtually all Sunni), 8 percent Coptic and other Christian. Literacy: 40 percent.
GNP 1982-83 (estimated): $23.3 billion. Per capita income (estimated): $501. Labor force: 12.1 million. Major industries: oil, textiles, food processing, construction, cement. Economy: government-owned ''public sector'' industries constitute 85 percent of activity, private sector (mostly agriculture), 15 percent.