Across the OECD countries, first-generation students (students whose parents were born outside their country of residence) scored an average of 52 points below students whose parents are not immigrants.
Students in urban schools typically outperform their rural counterparts. In the OECD countries of Turkey, Slovakia, Chile, Mexico, and Italy, there is more than a 45-point average performance gap – more than one year of schooling. That gap is at least 80 points (two years of schooling) in Hungary, Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, and Panama.
Students coming from single-parent families score an average of 5 points lower than students coming from other family backgrounds, even once socioeconomic background is taken into account. In the US, the gap is 23 points.