Bangladesh and Myanmar agreed on Tuesday to complete within two years the return of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims who had fled an Army crackdown last year in Myanmar.
The United Nations Refugee Agency, responding to the plan, raised a concern about forcibly repatriating over 650,000 Rohingya who fled to neighboring Bangladesh after a conflict erupted in western Rakhine state in August.
Statements from both the Myanmar and Bangladesh foreign ministries said Bangladesh would set up five transit camps on its side of the border. Those camps would send Rohingyas to two reception centers in Myanmar. The repatriation process would start next Tuesday, the statements said.
Myanmar said it would build a transit camp that can house 30,000 returnees.
The Bangladesh statement said "Myanmar has reiterated its commitment to stop [the] outflow of Myanmar residents to Bangladesh."
Myanmar stressed the need for both sides to take preventive measures against possible Rohingya attacks and said it gave Dhaka a list with the names of 1,000 alleged militants.
The crisis erupted after Rohingya insurgent attacks on security posts on Aug. 25 in Rakhine triggered a fierce military response that the United Nations denounced as ethnic cleansing. Some 650,000 people fled the violence.
The military denies ethnic cleansing, saying its security forces had mounted legitimate counter-insurgency clearance operations.
The Bangladesh statement called for repatriating orphans and "children born out of unwarranted incidence," a reference to cases of rape resulting in pregnancy, said a Bangladesh foreign ministry official who declined to be identified.
The rape of Rohingya women by Myanmar's security forces was widespread, according to interviews with women conducted at displacement camps by UN medics and activists. The military denies it was involved in any sexual assaults.
A spokesperson from the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) said on Tuesday the Rohingya should only return voluntarily when they feel it is safe to do so.
“Major challenges have to be overcome,” UNHCR spokesman Andrej Mahecic told a Geneva news briefing. “These include ensuring they are told about the situation in their areas of origin ... and are consulted on their wishes, that their safety is ensured.”
Myanmar government spokesman Zaw Htay told Reuters last week the returnees could apply for citizenship "after they pass the verification process."
Myint Kyaing, permanent secretary at Myanmar's Ministry of Labour, Immigration, and Population, told Reuters this month Myanmar would begin processing at least 150 people a day through each of the two camps by Jan. 23.
The meeting that concluded on Tuesday in Myanmar's capital Naypyitaw was the first for a joint working group set up to hammer out the details of the November repatriation agreement.
Left out of the talks were the fears and concerns of the refugees themselves, "as if they are an inert mass of people who will go where and when they are told," Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch, told Reuters in an email.
"Where are considerations for protection of the Rohingya from Myanmar security forces who months ago were raping and killing them? How come the discussions ignore the deprivation of rights of people held in indefinite detention, which is what these so-called 'temporary' accommodations may become?," Mr. Robertson asked.
'Living like prisoners'
A group of refugees at the Kutupalong Rohingya camp near Cox's Bazar in Bangladesh expressed doubt about the camps Myanmar has agreed to establish on its side of the border.
Mohammad Farouk who arrived in Bangladesh following the Aug. 25 attacks, said exchanging one camp for another made little difference – except "the camps in Myanmar will be far worse, because we will be confined there and there will be a risk to our lives.”
Another resident of the Kutupalong camp compared the new transit camps to ones set up near the Rakhine state capital of Sittwe following bouts of violence in previous years "where people are living like prisoners."
“First, ask the military to give those Rohingya their homes and property back, then talk to us about returning,” said the Rohingya refugee who did not want to be identified.
Some said the kind of violence they witnessed toward their community in Myanmar made it hard for them to trust the military. “Even if I don’t get food or anything else here, at least there is safety. I won’t feel safe if I go back to Myanmar,” said Rashid Ahmed.
Noor Alam who came to Kutupalong five months ago, wondered if he could ever get a job in Myanmar. “They don’t even call us Rohingya. Until they consider us citizens we won’t go back.”
Some young men in the camp worried they might be arrested on accusations of terrorism if they returned to Myanmar.
Camp conditions in Bangladesh are dire enough, but more than 520,000 Rohingya children are at even greater risk ahead of the cyclone season that generally begins in April, the UN Children's Fund said on Tuesday.
"Hundreds of thousands of children are already living in horrific conditions, and they will face an even greater risk of disease, flooding, landslides, and further displacement,” said Edouard Beigbeder, UNICEF representative in Bangladesh.
Nearly 1 million Rohingya live in Bangladesh, including those who came after previous displacements dating back to the 1990s.
This story was reported by Reuters.