President Donald Trump's impeachment trial is set to unfold at the Capitol, a contentious proceeding over whether to remove him from office for pressuring Ukraine to investigate his Democratic rivals and obstructing Congress' ensuing investigation.
As the Senate reconvenes with Chief Justice John Roberts presiding, a first test will come midday Tuesday when the session gavels open to vote on Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell's proposed rules for debate.
More than procedure is at stake: Mr. Trump's presidency is on the line, and the nation is deeply divided just weeks before the first Democratic primary presidential contests. To complicate matters, four presidential candidates are serving as jurors in the Senate trial, which will keep them off the campaign trail.
On the eve of the trial, the Republican leader offered a compressed calendar for opening statements, just two days for each side, as Mr. Trump's lawyers argued for swift rejection of the "flimsy" charges against the president and acquittal.
"All of this is a dangerous perversion of the Constitution that the Senate should swiftly and roundly condemn," the president's lawyers wrote in their first full filing Monday. "The articles should be rejected and the president should immediately be acquitted."
Democrats – as the House prosecutors practiced opening arguments well into the night on the Senate floor – vowed to object to a speedy trial as they pressed for fresh witnesses and documents.
Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer warned of a "cover-up" with Senator McConnell's plan that could lead to back-to-back 12-hour days.
"It's clear Senator McConnell is hell-bent on making it much more difficult to get witnesses and documents and intent on rushing the trial through," Mr. Schumer said. He called the proposed rules a "national disgrace."
The first several days of the trial are expected to be tangled in procedural motions playing out on the Senate floor or, more likely, behind closed doors, since senators must refrain from speaking during the trial proceedings.
Senators are poised for only the third presidential impeachment trial in U.S. history, coming just weeks before the first primaries of the 2020 election, with four senators running for the Democratic nomination sidelined from campaigning.
Sen. Bernie Sanders, the Vermont independent, told supporters in Des Moines they're going to have to "carry the ball" for him while he takes his seat in Washington. The Iowa caucuses are in less than two weeks.
Mr. Trump, meanwhile, is at a global conference in Davos, Switzerland. His White House said Senator McConnell's proposed rules protect Mr. Trump's rights to a fair trial. White House legislative affairs director Eric Ueland said the White House looks forward "to presenting a vigorous defense on the facts and the process as quickly as possible, and seeking an acquittal as swiftly as possible."
House Speaker Nancy Pelosi will also be away for the proceedings, leading a bipartisan congressional delegation to Poland and Israel to commemorate the 75 years since the liberation of Auschwitz at the end of World War II.
She issued a statement Tuesday denouncing Senator McConnell's proposed ground rules as a "sham" because of the compressed schedule and lack of guarantee that witnesses will be called or that evidence gathered by the House would be admitted in the Senate trial.
"The Senate GOP Leader has chosen a cover-up for the President, rather than honor his oath to the Constitution," Speaker Pelosi said.
Also Tuesday, the House Democratic managers overseeing the impeachment case asked White House counsel Pat Cipollone, the president's lead lawyer at the trial, to disclose any "first-hand knowledge" he has of the charges against Mr. Trump. They said evidence gathered so far indicates that Mr. Cipollone is a "material witness" to the allegations at hand.
"You must disclose all facts and information as to which you have first-hand knowledge that will be at issue in connection with evidence you present or arguments you make in your role as the President's legal advocate so that the Senate and Chief Justice can be apprised of any potential ethical issues, conflicts, or biases," the managers wrote in a letter to Mr. Cipollone.
House Democrats impeached the Republican president last month on two charges: abuse of power by withholding U.S. military aid to Ukraine as he pressed the country to investigate Democratic rival Joe Biden, and obstruction of Congress by refusing to cooperate with their investigation.
The Constitution gives the House the sole power to impeach a president and the Senate the final verdict by convening as the impeachment court for a trial.
The president late Monday named eight House Republicans, some of his fiercest defenders, to a special team tasked with rallying support beyond the Senate chamber in the court of public opinion.
Senator McConnell is angling for a quick trial and acquittal, and with Republicans holding the Senate majority, the trial proposal is likely to be approved by senators in the president's party. The Republican leader had promised to set rules similar to the last trial, of President Bill Clinton in 1999, but his resolution diverged in key ways, which may leave some senators from both parties uneasy.
After the four days of opening arguments, senators will be allowed up to 16 hours for questions to the prosecution and defense, followed by four hours of debate. Only then will there be votes on whether or not to call other witnesses.
At the end of deliberations, the Senate would then vote on each impeachment article.
Republican Sen. Mitt Romney of Utah emailed his constituents that he was on board with the resolution put forth by Senator McConnell, even as he said the allegations against Mr. Trump are "extremely serious – did the President abuse his office for personal political gain, and did he obstruct Congress' investigation by blocking subpoenas?"
Senator Romney is among a small number of Republican senators who want to consider witness testimony and documents that weren't part of the House impeachment investigation, but the test of their votes will likely come later.
With security tightening at the Capitol, the House prosecutors led by Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam Schiff made their way Monday through crowds of tourists in the Rotunda to tour the Senate chamber. The White House legal team led by Mr. Cipollone and Jay Sekulow soon followed.
Four TV monitors were set up inside the Senate chamber to show testimony, exhibits, and potentially tweets or other social media, according to a person familiar with the matter but unauthorized to discuss it on the record.
In their own filing Monday, House prosecutors issued fresh demands for a fair trial. "President Trump asserts that his impeachment is a partisan 'hoax.' He is wrong," the prosecutors wrote.
The House Democrats said the president can't have it both ways – rejecting the facts of the House case but also stonewalling congressional subpoenas for witnesses and testimony. "Senators must honor their own oaths by holding a fair trial with all relevant evidence," they wrote.
The White House document released Monday says the two charges against the president don't amount to impeachable offenses. It asserts that the impeachment inquiry, centered on Mr. Trump's request that Ukraine's president open an investigation into Democratic rival Biden, was never about finding the truth.
House Democrats in their initial court filing over the weekend called Mr. Trump's conduct the "worst nightmare" of the framers of the Constitution.
"President Donald J. Trump used his official powers to pressure a foreign government to interfere in a United States election for his personal political gain," the House prosecutors wrote, "and then attempted to cover up his scheme by obstructing Congress's investigation into his misconduct."
But Mr. Trump's team contended that even if Mr. Trump were to have abused his power in withholding the Ukraine military assistance, it would not be impeachable because it did not violate a specific criminal statute.
No president has ever been removed from office. With its 53-47 Republican majority, the Senate is not expected to mount the two-thirds votes needed for conviction. Even if it did, the White House team argues it would be an "unconstitutional conviction" because the articles of impeachment were too broad.
This story was reported by The Associated Press.