Much more is at stake on Election Day than the White House. State by state, district by district, neighborhood by neighborhood, candidates and campaigners are making their last pitch for Congress, state legislatures, governor's offices, ballot questions, judgeships, city councils, and lots more.
A nationwide look at important, interesting and occasionally odd matters that go before voters on Tuesday:
Alabama voters must decide on 14 statewide constitutional amendments affecting everything from funding for state parks and the age of public officeholders to beer. Yes, beer. The Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board wants to require brewers to report the name, address, age, and phone number from anyone who purchases beer at one of the state's craft breweries for off-premises consumption. Republican US Sen. Richard Shelby, chairman of the Senate Banking Committee, is expected to easily win a sixth term.
Republican US Sen. Lisa Murkowski is up for re-election, and the race has drawn not one but three foes: Democrat Ray Metcalfe, independent Margaret Stock, and Joe Miller, who upset Murkowski in the 2010 GOP primary only to then lose the general election in a historic write-in campaign. This time Miller is running as a Libertarian.
Eight years after losing his bid for president, Republican U.S. Sen. John McCain is running for re-election. McCain has publicly struggled with whether to support GOP presidential nominee Donald Trump, who called McCain a loser and criticized him for being captured during the Vietnam War. Marijuana is on the ballot; voters could legalize the drug for recreational use by adults. Minimum wage could rise to $12 an hour by 2020 under a separate ballot measure. Metro Phoenix Sheriff Joe Arpaio, the self-proclaimed toughest sheriff in America, is fighting for his job after a criminal indictment stemming from his immigration patrols.
Arkansas could become the first Southern state to legalize medical marijuana, although a similar proposal lost by less than 30,000 votes a year ago, out of 1.3 million votes cast. Republicans are expected to hold all four of Arkansas' US House seats. Democrats are fielding a candidate in only one district.
Democratic US Sen. Barbara Boxer's retirement creates a rare open seat, and for the first time in the modern era, no Republican will be on the ballot. Thanks to California's unusual primary system, in which the two top finishers from the June primary advance to the general election, voters will decide between two Democrats – state Attorney General Kamala Harris and US Rep. Loretta Sanchez. The statewide ballot has a whopping 17 propositions, the most on a single ballot since March 2000. There's a measure to legalize recreational marijuana and one requiring porn actors to wear condoms. Voters will weigh in twice on the death penalty. One measure would repeal capital punishment while another seeks to speed up the process.
Democratic US Sen. Michael Bennet is running for re-election against a tea party-aligned opponent, conservative Darryl Glenn, who has struggled to raise funds after national party leaders refused to endorse his candidacy. In a hotly contested House race, Republican US Rep. Mike Coffman is facing a challenge from Democratic state Sen. Morgan Carroll in suburban Denver. The chief ballot questions would allow medical aid in dying and create a universal health care system within the state.
The five Democrats who make up the state's US House delegation face re-election, including Rosa DeLauro, the longest serving member in the group who is seeking a 14th term. William Petit, whose wife and two daughters were murdered in a 2007 home invasion, is running as a Republican for the Legislature against state Rep. Betty Boukus, an 11-term Democrat who heads the powerful House bonding subcommittee.
Voters will elect a new congressional representative and a new governor, while Republicans are hoping to end years of Democratic rule in the General Assembly by regaining control of the state Senate. Democratic US Rep. John Carney Jr. is making a second run for governor against Republican state Sen. Colin Bonini. Democrat Lisa Blunt Rochester and Republican Hans Reigle are vying for the state's lone U.S. House seat.
District of Columbia
Voters in the nation's capital will decide whether they want their city to become the 51st state. The measure, backed by Mayor Muriel Bowser, should pass easily, but that's probably as far as it goes. Congress would need to approve any such change and Republicans are unlikely to go along with it. With registered Democrats outnumbering Republicans by 12-1 in the city, statehood would tip the balance in the US Senate with two more Democrats.
Florida voters will decide whether Republican US Sen. Marco Rubio gets a second term. They'll also pick at least eight new US House members after districts were redrawn to comply with the state constitution, and will cast ballotson legalizing medical marijuana. Rubio faces Democratic US Rep. Patrick Murphy, while ex-Republican Gov. Charlie Crist hopes to revive his political career – now as a Democrat – in a race against Republican US Rep. David Jolly in a St. Petersburg-area district.
Democrat Jim Barksdale and Libertarian Allen Buckley are challenging Republican US Sen. Johnny Isakson, who seeks a third term. Barksdale, who owns an Atlanta investment firm, gave $3.5 million toward his first political campaign but has struggled to get momentum against the well-known Isakson. Georgia voters also will decide on a constitutional amendment allowing the state to take over low-performing schools.
Voters in Honolulu must make two separate choices after US Rep. Mark Takai died in office: Someone to fill his seat for the remaining two months of his term, and someone to represent the district for the next two years. Voter confusion could lead to two different people winning the same seat, to serve two different terms. In heavily Democratic Hawaii, the only state Senate seat held by a Republican, Sam Slom, could flip. That would make Hawaii the first state in the nation to have a one-party legislative body since 1980.
Republicans will dominate at the top of the ticket, leaving an open seat on Idaho's Supreme Court as the most competitive race. Twin Falls attorney Robyn Brody and Republican state Sen. Curt McKenzie are in a tight, nonpartisan race.
Illinois is home to one of the most closely watched US Senate races in the country, with Republican incumbent Mark Kirk and Democratic US Rep. Tammy Duckworth. Kirk, a first-term senator, is considered one of the more vulnerable Republicans, and polls have indeed shown Duckworth with a comfortable lead. Wealthy Republican Gov. Bruce Rauner has spent record amounts on down-ballot races in hopes of tilting the Democrat-leaning Legislature toward the GOP so he can press his own policy agenda in second half of his term.
With Republican Gov. Mike Pence on the national ticket as Trump's running mate, the governor's office is up for grabs. And this is another state with a US Senate race that will be crucial to determining party control. A former governor and US senator, Democrat Evan Bayh, wants to return to the Senate and faces Republican US Rep. Todd Young. Democrats are hoping to gain enough seats in the General Assembly to break the current Republican stranglehold.
Republican Charles Grassley is seeking a seventh US Senate term and trying to retain a seat his party has held since 1957. Democrats are optimistic that their candidate, Patty Judge, can break that winning streak, given her previous elections to statewide office as agriculture secretary and lieutenant governor. Two of Iowa's four US House races are expected to be especially competitive.
Democrats are seeking to cut into Republican majorities in both houses of the Legislature and oust more allies of term-limited GOP Gov. Sam Brownback. Conservatives and abortion opponents are seeking to remove four Kansas Supreme Court justices in hopes of giving Brownback a chance to remake the court ahead of major abortion and school funding rulings.
Voters will decide whether to send Republican US Sen. Rand Paul, who made an early run for the presidency, back to Washington for a second term. His Democratic opponent is Lexington Mayor Jim Gray. Voters also will determine whether the only legislative chamber in the South still controlled by Democrats remains so. Republicans need to pick up four seats to win a majority in the Kentucky House for the first time since 1920.
Two dozen – that's right, two dozen – candidates are vying for an open seat in the US Senate after incumbent David Vitter decided not to seek re-election. One of them is white supremacist David Duke, who is not among the top-tier candidates in polling. Because no candidate is likely to get the 50-percent-plus-one majority needed to win outright, the top vote-getters will head to a Dec. 10 runoff that could end up determining which party gains control of the US Senate for the next two years.
Mainers will decide whether to make marijuana legal for everyone over age 21. Maine is one of nine states considering ballot questions on pot legalization for recreational or medicinal use. Another initiative would require background checks before the sale or transfer of firearms between people who aren't licensed dealers. And one would boost the hourly minimum wage from $7.50 to $12 by 2020.
Voters will pick a replacement for the popular Barbara Mikulski, who is retiring after 30 years in the US Senate. US Rep. Chris Van Hollen, a seven-term Democrat, is running against Kathy Szeliga, minority whip in the state House of Delegates. She has sought to portray Van Hollen as an insider of dysfunctional Washington. Baltimore will choose a new mayor.
Massachusetts voters will also vote on marijuana legalization, as well as a proposed expansion of charter schools. There are a handful of congressional contests, with Democratic U.S. Reps. Richard Neal, Niki Tsongas, Joe Kennedy, Stephen Lynch and William Keating all facing challengers.
It's the Democrats' last shot to disrupt the GOP's agenda or Republicans will lead the Legislature all eight years of GOP Gov. Rick Snyder's tenure. At least a dozen GOP-held House districts – half with incumbents, half open due to term limits – will determine which party secures the minimum 56 seats needed. Democrats have targeted two GOP-held US House districts, while two spots on the Michigan Supreme Court represent the most significant statewide races.
A trio of competitive congressional races takes top billing in Minnesota. Democratic Rep. Rick Nolan will try to fend off a rematch challenge from Republican Stewart Mills to hang on to a northeastern Minnesota district that has been a liberal stronghold for decades. The result has been one of the most expensive House elections in the country. Republican Rep. Erik Paulsen will be defending his suburban Minneapolis seat, while the two parties jostle over another suburban district that opened with a top Republican's retirement.
All 201 state House and Senate seats are on the ballot in an election to determine legislative majorities. Voters will also decide whether to hand off legislators' power to set their own pay to an independent council.
All four of Mississippi's US House members – three Republicans and one Democrat – are up for re-election. All are likely to prevail. Four of the nine state Supreme Court seats will also be filled, as will four of 10 seats on the state Court of Appeals.
Missouri voters will decide whether to send US Sen. Roy Blunt to a second term, or choose Democratic challenger Jason Kander instead. It's a race that will help decide party control of the Senate, and polls have indicated a toss-up for months. Meanwhile, Missouri's contentious campaign for governor has been the nation's most expensive. Republican newcomer Eric Greitens, a former Navy SEAL, has campaigned largely on his military record, while Attorney General Chris Koster has endorsements from the Missouri Farm Bureau and National Rifle Association, which typically support Republicans.
Popular Democratic Gov. Steve Bullock is up for a second term in the conservative-leaning state against software entrepreneur Greg Gianforte, who spent more than $5.6 million of his own money on his campaign. Incumbent US Rep. Ryan Zinke is seeking to hold off a determined challenge from Democrat Denise Juneau to maintain a two-decade Republican lock on Montana's sole House seat. Pot is also on the ballot, with a measure that would loosen many of the restrictions imposed on the state's medical marijuana program with a 2011 state law that limited marijuana providers to three patients each.
Nebraska voters have the opportunity to reinstate the death penalty and reverse last year's decision by the Legislature. The citizen-led ballot measure has triggered millions in campaign spending. In one of the country's most competitive congressional races, Republicans are looking to defeat first-term Democratic US Rep. Brad Ashford, who promotes himself as a champion of bipartisanship. His opponent, Don Bacon, is a retired Air Force brigadier general who is running as a Washington outsider.
Nevada is home to one of the most expensive US Senate races in the country, featuring lots of TV ads about the seat being vacated by Democratic leader Harry Reid. The race is between US Rep. Joe Heck, a Republican, and Democrat Catherine Cortez Masto, a former Nevada attorney general trying to become the first Latina US senator. Recreational marijuana is also on the ballot, raising the possibility of pot shops springing up near the Las Vegas Strip.
New Hampshire is a presidential swing state, and home to a tight US Senate contest between Republican incumbent Kelly Ayotte and Democratic Gov. Maggie Hassan. It's one of a half-dozen races that could help determine which party controls the Senate. Two members of the US House, Republican Chris Sununu and Democrat Colin Van Ostern, are vying to replace Hassan as governor.
One of the nastiest US House races in the country this year has pitted a Republican incumbent, Rep. Scott Garrett, against Democrat Josh Gottheimer. In a district that stretches from wealthy New York City suburbs to the state's rural northwestern corner, the two candidates have called each other liars and engaged in a war of words and accusations to rival the presidential candidates. New Jersey voters will also decide on a proposed expansion of casino gambling.
There's little suspense at the top of the ticket, with all three US House incumbents expected to be re-elected, so Republicans are focused on defending their narrow majority in the state House. The party took over in 2014, ending 60 years of Democratic control. The criminal conviction and resignation of former Secretary of State Dianna Duran in 2015, for embezzlement and money laundering related to her gambling addiction, has opened that office. The race is between Democrat Maggie Toulouse Oliver and Republican state lawmaker Nora Espinoza.
Voters will decide whether the Republican Party maintains control of the state Senate or Democrats secure total control of state government. The outcome is likely to come down to a handful of competitive races on Long Island and in the Hudson Valley.
As a focal point in battles over transgender rights and voter ID laws, North Carolina may be the state where social and ideological divisions are the most defining this election year. Republican Gov. Pat McCrory is in a tight race against Democrat Roy Cooper, the state's attorney general. Former state Rep. Deborah Ross is presenting a strong challenge to incumbent Republican US Sen. Richard Burr in one of the most closely watched Senate races.
As this state's energy- and agriculture-dependent economy falters, voters will choose a new governor to lead it through increasingly troubled financial times. But with Republican Doug Burgum a heavy favorite in this reliably red state, five ballot measures may be of most interest. Among the most-watched will be a measure that would make it legal to possess up to 3 ounces of marijuana for medical purposes.
Early on, former Gov. Ted Strickland looked like one of the Democrats' best bets to flip a US Senate seat in his party's favor. He's running again Republican incumbent Sen. Rob Portman. Then outside groups spent more than $50 million to beat Strickland, who also lost key union endorsements and was up against a formidable voter outreach and turnout effort by Portman. Now the seat looks pretty safe for the GOP.
Oklahoma voters will be watching a ballot issue that targets the state's chronically low teacher salaries and one that would enshrine the death penalty in the state constitution, even as executions remain on hold after mistakes in two recent lethal injections.
A Republican is threatening to win statewide office for the first time in many years, in a battle for secretary of state that is the hottest in Oregon. Democrat Brad Avakian is running ads saying his GOP rival is "extreme like Trump." Republican Dennis Richardson has racked up endorsements from numerous newspapers and even from two prominent members of Avakian's own party.
Since 1948, no Democrat has won the White House without winning Pennsylvania. There's also a hot US Senate race between Democratic challenger Katie McGinty and Republican incumbent Pat Toomey, who is among the most vulnerable Republicans as the GOP struggles to retain its majority. Spending on that campaign is on track to hit $140 million.
Voters in Rhode Island, a state that has seen its share of political corruption, will decide whether to expand the authority of the state's ethics commission. They'll also be asked whether to allow a new casino.
Republican US Sen. Tim Scott , the South's first black senator since Reconstruction, is running for his first full term. He was appointed to the seat in 2013 following the resignation of Sen. Jim DeMint, then won election to the final two years of that term. Democrat Thomas Dixon, a community activist and pastor, is challenging him. Then there's Democrat Dimitri Cherny, whose platform includes colonizing the moon and Mars in case the Earth becomes uninhabitable. He's challenging Republican US Rep. Mark Sanford, the ex-governor whom voters sent back to Congress in 2013.
The main suspense is likely to be the fate of 10 ballot questions on topics ranging from public campaign funding to payday loan interest rates.
Democrats are hoping to chip away at vast Republican majorities in the state Legislature by focusing on urban areas, while the GOP is seeking to stamp out the last vestiges of Democratic support in rural parts of the state.
Texas' only competitive congressional race looks to be the rematch between Republican US Rep. Will Hurd and former Democratic Rep. Pete Gallego in a district that sprawls from San Antonio to suburban El Paso, including 800-plus miles of US-Mexico borderlands. Hurd unseated Gallego in 2014. The entire Texas House also is up for election, along with 16 of the state Senate's 31 seats. Regardless of the outcomes, both chambers will remain Republican-controlled.
The independent campaign of Evan McMullin has made Utah suddenly relevant in presidential politics. If the former CIA operative, a Mormon, can win the state and claim its six electoral votes, it could upend Donald Trump's chances for the White House end five decades of reliably voting for the Republican nominee.
This state, considered among the most liberal in the country, may well elect a Republican governor. That race pits Lt. Gov. Phil Scott, a Republican, against former state Transportation Secretary Sue Minter, a Democrat.
Barbara Comstock, a first term GOP congresswoman, is trying to fend off a serious challenge from Democrat LuAnn Bennett. Trump's unpopularity in northern Virginia has loomed large in the race, with Bennett trying to tie Comstock to the presidential nominee. In the crowded race for mayor of Richmond, the front-runner is Joe Morrissey, a former state lawmaker who went to jail for having sex with his then-17-year-old receptionist, who is now his wife.
Republicans are hoping to ride on the coattails of an expected strong showing for Trump, who has promised to put coal miners back to work. In the governor's race, Democrat Jim Justice, a billionaire coal and agriculture magnate, faces Bill Cole, the state Senate president. In the state auditor's race, Democrat Mary Ann Claytor is vying to become the first African-American statewide officeholder in West Virginia history.
Democratic Gov. Jay Inslee is seeking a second term. He faces Republican Bill Bryant, a former Seattle port commissioner who says Inslee has mismanaged the state's mental health system and failed to fund K-12 education as mandated by the state Supreme Court. Six initiatives are on the statewide ballot, including raising the minimum wage to $13.50 an hour by 2020 and imposing a carbon emission tax on certain fossil fuels.
It's 2010 all over again in Wisconsin's US Senate race. This time, Republican Sen. Ron Johnson is the incumbent and former Democratic Sen. Russ Feingold is the challenger. Johnson argues that having been fired once by voters, Feingold does not deserve to be sent back. But Feingold says Johnson has not led on the issues Wisconsin voters care about and should not be given a second term.
Republican Liz Cheney is heavily favored to win Wyoming's only seat in the US House, which was formerly held by her father, former Vice President Dick Cheney. Her opponent, Democrat Ryan Greene, works for an oilfield services company. Wyoming voters also will decide whether to allow the state to invest potentially billions more in the stock market, changing a state law that limits investments.