Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton wraps up her whirlwind tour of Africa Friday, after logging 21,200 miles in 11 days. From massive oil-producing Nigeria to the tiny island-nation of Cape Verde, Secretary Clinton's trip highlighted the many sides of the diverse continent. But her seven-country tour was as much about securing US interests in resource-heavy lands as it was about supporting African development. Following are summaries of her visit in each country:
A primary goal of Clinton's 11-day trip was to reiterate the message of transparent and corruption-free governance that President Obama urged during his trip to Ghana last month. This reiteration began at the first stop, Kenya.
Indeed, the birthplace of Mr. Obama's father was not spared criticism for its shortcomings. "The absence of strong and democratic institutions has permitted ongoing corruption, impunity, politically motivated violence, human rights abuses, lack of respect for the rule of law," Clinton said at a news conference after meeting with President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga.
Discussions also included trade, agricultural development, and the instability of neighboring Somalia. In addition, Clinton met with Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, president of Somalia's transitional government, to offer reassurance of US support.
Clinton's time in South Africa, a country often known as the continent's economic powerhouse, focused on strengthening relations that had soured and stalled during the administrations of former Presidents George W. Bush and Thabo Mbeki.
Oil-rich Angola is strategically attractive to the US. Already, Angola supplies America with 7 percent of its oil imports. Angola's worldwide oil revenues account for approximately 85 percent of its gross domestic product.
Here, Clinton pressed for strong democratic institutions and governmental transparency, pushing President Jose Eduardo dos Santos to hold the country's first presidential elections since 1992. Mr. dos Santos agreed to elections "in a timely manner," according to Clinton.
Clinton also stressed the need for Angola to redevelop its once-productive agricultural industry. And she signed an agreement that provides the country with $17 million to combat HIV/AIDS and prevent new infections. It was one of only two pledges for new aid announced on the trip.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since war broke out 12 years ago, 200,000 women and girls have been raped in Congo, the United Nations estimates. In "very frank" discussions with President Joseph Kabila, Clinton said, she "made the point that these crimes, no matter who commits them, must be prosecuted and punished."
To Prime Minister Adolphe Muzito, she added at a dinner in her honor, "There must be an end to widespread financial corruption and abuses of human rights and women's rights."
Clinton also spoke out against "conflict minerals" mined in the country and announced that the US will provide more than $17 million in new funding to prevent and respond to gender and sexual violence here.
"Nigeria is at a crossroads," Clinton said at a town-hall-style meeting in the capital, Abuja. She stressed the need for Africa's largest country – and one of its most corrupt – to implement democratic reforms.
Before an audience of civil activists in Abuja, she cited a recent World Bank report that said Nigeria has lost more than $300 billion to corruption and mismanagement over three decades. And, Clinton said, the "lack of transparency and accountability has eroded the legitimacy of the government and contributed to the rise of groups that embrace violence and reject the authority of the state."
The US supports Nigeria's inclusion in the Group of 20, Clinton also said, but the country first has to tackle its corruption problems, she added.
At a luncheon to honor the continent's only female president, Liberia's Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Clinton said, "I will admit it. It's not diplomatic, but I happen to be a fan and a friend of your president."
Thousands lined the streets to greet Clinton in the warmest reception of all her African sojourns.
Despite a seven-year civil war, Liberia has been politically and economically stable since about 2005.
But Clinton did not shy away from the work Liberia has yet to do.
"Liberian people still need jobs, electricity, housing, and education," Clinton said before a joint session of the Liberian National Legislature. "Law enforcement is still inadequate, and after years of war and lawlessness, institutions have been left crippled."
She also noted the need for budgetary oversight and increased governmental transparency.
But she also said, "In just three years, there are encouraging signs of progress."
That Clinton included Cape Verde, a palm-speckled archipelago and refueling stop for long-distance flights, was a surprise to many.
But it was one last opportunity for her to highlight an example of good governance in Africa, after strong critiques of corruption in many of her previous stops.
"Few places ... demonstrate the promise of Africa better than Cape Verde," Clinton said in a news conference before returning to Washington.
A look ahead
No doubt, Obama's tough-love message for Africa was repeated many a time on Clinton's trip. But what's less certain is what comes next for US involvement in Africa.
"It's one thing for Clinton to make these trips, to acknowledge the significance and importance of Africa in the world," says Kamari Clarke, chair of Yale University's Council on African Studies in New Haven, Conn. But "it will take a lot more than a visit and some handshakes to measure the viability and the extent to which this visit will lead to other, more significant changes in the region."