The most far-reaching U.S. immigration legislation in about two decades moved forward on a solid bipartisan vote in the Senate Judiciary Committee after supporters avoided a controversy over the rights of gay spouses.
The 13-5 vote cleared the way for a full Senate showdown on one of President Barack Obama's top domestic priorities — and gives the opposition Republican Party a chance to recast itself as more appealing to minorities.
"Yes, we can! Si, se puede" immigration activists shouted after the vote, reprising Obama's campaign cry in his historic run for the White House in 2008.
In addition to creating a pathway to citizenship for 11.5 million immigrants living illegally in the country, the legislation creates a new program for low-skilled foreign labor and would permit highly skilled workers into the country at far higher levels. At the same time, it requires the government to take costly new steps to guard against future illegal immigration.
In a statement, Obama said the legislation is "largely consistent with the principles of common-sense reform I have proposed and meets the challenge of fixing our broken immigration system."
Republicans have embraced the idea of immigration reform after a large majority of Hispanic voters supporters Obama in last year's election, leading to concerns that the party was out of touch with a younger, more diverse country.
There was suspense before Tuesday's vote when Sen. Patrick Leahy, the panel's chairman, sparked a debate over his proposal to give same-sex and heterosexual spouses equal rights under immigration law.
But the the bill's supporters, repeating private appeals from the White House, warned that forcing a vote on that issue would lead to the collapse of conservative Republican support and the bill's demise.
In the hours leading to a final vote, the panel also agreed to a last-minute compromise covering an increase in the visa program for high-tech workers. The number of highly skilled workers admitted would rise from 65,000 annually to 110,000, with the possibility of a further increase to 180,000, depending in part on unemployment levels.
Firms where foreign labor accounts for at least 15 percent of the skilled work force would be subjected to tighter conditions.
AFL-CIO President Rich Trumka attacked the deal sharply as "anti-worker," although he also made clear organized labor would continue to support the overall legislation.
Robert Hoffman, senior vice president for government affairs at the Information Technology Industry Council, welcomed the deal. "We obviously want to keep moving the bill forward and building support for the legislation, and this agreement allows us to do so," he said.
But Chad Griffin, the president of the Human Rights Campaign, said his group was "extremely disappointed that our allies did not put their anti-LGBT colleagues on the spot and force a vote on the measure that remains popular with the American people."
The gay rights issue is certain to re-emerge when the full Senate debates the legislation, although it is doubtful that sponsors can command the 60 votes that will be needed to make it part of the legislation.
In the other chamber of Congress, the House of Representatives, immigration legislation is due to receive a hearing in the Judiciary Committee on Wednesday.
The centerpiece provision of the legislation in the Senate allows people living in the U.S. illegally to obtain "registered provisional immigrant status" six months after enactment if certain conditions are also met.
Applicants must have arrived in the United States before Dec. 31, 2011, and maintained continuous physical presence, must not have a felony conviction or more than two misdemeanors on their record and pay a $500 fine.
The registered provisional immigrant status lasts six years and is renewable for another $500. After a decade, individuals could seek a green card and lawful permanent resident status if they are up to date on their taxes and pay a $1,000 fine and meet other conditions.
Individuals brought to the country as youths would be able to apply for green cards in five years.
Associated Press writers David Espo and Erica Werner and AP White House Correspondent Julie Pace contributed to this report.