Girls attend school in the capital Salisbury, now Harare, Zimbabwe. Most schools were segregated by race, though there were some integrated schools operated by religious missions and other private organizations. This picture was taken shortly before Prime Minister Ian Smith of the colonial government declared Rhodesia independent of Great Britain on November 11, 1965. Britain repudiated the action and considered the country in rebellion. UN sanctions and a guerilla uprising led to free elections in 1979, becoming independent as Zimbabwe in 1980. The first prime minister, Robert Mugabe, has been the country's only ruler, becoming president in 1987.