997 A.D.: The first of the Turkish-Afghan invaders, Mahmud of Ghazni, began a series of forays into India, destroying Hindu temples and establishing a Muslim foothold.

1206-1526: Turkish-Afghan invaders consolidated power and created the sultanate of Delhi, ruling most of north India.

1498: The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived, opening a century of Portuguese domination of European trade with India.

1526: Babur, the first Mogul invader, swept in from Kabul and captured Delhi. Mogul rule was not consolidated until the reign of Akbar, which began in 1556. The Moguls ruled most of India until the early 18th century.

1700-1858: As the Mogul empire waned, French and English companies increased their presence and the British East India Company developed political power.

1858: The British government took over the rule of India from the British East India Company.

1947: India gained independence.

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