1964 Frelimo (Mozambique Liberation Front) launches military campaign against Portuguese rule. 1975 Mozambique gains full independence. Samora Machel, leader of Frelimo, becomes first president.
1977 Frelimo adopts Marxist principles.
1980 Relations normalize upon Zimbabwe's independence. But South Africa continues support for opposition right-wing guerrilla group, Mozambique National Resistance Movement (Renamo).
1981 Rapprochement between former colony and colonizer begins. Portugal agrees to supply arms to Frelimo.
1983 South Africa conducts two raids aimed at destroying bases of then-banned African National Congress (ANC).
1984 Mozambique and South Africa sign nonaggression pact. But Renamo activity intesifies, although South Africa claims to have discontinued support to rebels. (Mozambique becomes largest recipient of United States food aid in the world in 1984.)
1986 President Machel dies in airplane crash. Reports say navigational error was at fault, but Mozambique government claims South Africa was responsible. Joaquim Chissano, former minister for foreign affairs, is appointed president in November.
1990 In January, President Chissano drafts new constitution. Changes include: universal sufferage, suffrage, direct presidential elections, access to courts, land ownership, and freedom of religion and association.
1990 On Aug. 1, Last Wednesday, the government announces move to multiparty state this fall. South African businesses continues recent drive to reinvest in Mozambique.