Four different types of programs were analyzed in the GAO study: ``Sponsorship'' programs, such as Lang's ``I Have a Dream'' program, in which individuals or organizations promise elementary or junior high school classes tuition. These programs also offer various support services.

``Last dollar'' programs help high school juniors and seniors apply for college enrollment and financial aid. These organizations guarantee the remaining amount of financial aid - ``last dollars'' - once other sources of assistance run dry.

``University-based'' programs are sponsored by colleges that guarantee admission and tuition to students who graduate from high school. Most also offer other support, for example, tutoring or summer enrichment experiences.

``Pay-for-Grades'' programs offer cash investments for future education to elementary or secondary students who earn specified grades.

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