Alleged Nuclear Exports
Reported West German shipments of nuclear weapons materials since 1980 to India and Pakistan, by date and company. INDIA 1982-88 - Neue Technologien GmbH (NTG), Physikalisch Technische Beratung (PTB) - Sold reflector material (possibly beryllium) and cadmium used to make plutonium, or as reflector to enhance weapons. 1983 - Rohstoff-Einfuhr - Diverted 15 tons of Norwegian heavy water. Shipment went via Basel, Switzerland, and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, to Bombay. 1984 - Degussa - Re-exported 95 kg. of US-origin beryllium to India without getting US approval. 1985 - Rohstoff-Einfuhr - Diverted 6.8 tons of Soviet heavy water.
PAKISTAN Mid-1980s-88 - NTG/PTB - Provided know-how, design, and construction of small, pool-type research reactor. 1982-88 - NTG/PTB - Sold transport and storage containers for uranium hexafluoride, feedstock required for uranium enrichment process, needed to make weapons-grade material. 1983-86 - Leybold-Hereaus - Through a specially created Swiss subsidiary, custom-manufactured and sold specialized equipment needed to prepare and handle uranium during enrichment. 1985-87 - NTG/PTB - Sold tritium purification/storage plant and 0.8 grams of tritium gas. About 4 grams of tritium are needed to make a ``boosted'' fission weapon. 1987 - Linde AG - May have supplied facility to recover impure tritium from heavy water. 1987-88 - NTG/PTB - Reactor fuel-making equipment including sintering oven and pellet press, an apparent violation of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sources: Leonard Spector, Carnegie Endowment for Peace, Gary Milhollin/University of Wisconsin