1985. World news in review. This year the world weathered recurring waves of terrorism, natural disasters, and military coups. There were hijackings and earthquakes. Governments toppled. In the West, nest after nest of spies was uncovered, and the leaders of the two superpowers finally talked to each other -- face to face. In Latin America, the historic shift toward democracy continued. And millions of Africa's famine victims received unprecedented aid.
JANUARY Israel says Jan. 3 it has airlifted 10,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel since 1977.
American Roman Catholic priest, Lawrence Martin Jenco is kidnapped in west Beirut Jan. 8; Islamic Jihad, an extremist Shiite Muslim organization, claims responsibility.
French President Franois Mitterrand visits Pacific territory of New Caledonia Jan. 19, where some islanders are fighting for independence.
Philippines Army chief of staff Gen. Fabian Ver and 25 others charged Jan. 23 with 1983 murder of opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr.
South Africa opens new Parliament, giving limited role to Indians and Coloreds, Jan. 25. Country's 24 million blacks have no role. FEBRUARY
Chile's military ruler renews state of siege Feb. 2.
Desmond M. Tutu, winner of the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize, becomes Johannesburg's first black Anglican bishop Feb. 3.
Spain-Gibraltar border opens for the first time in 15 years on Feb. 5.
Polish court finds state security guards guilty Feb. 7 of killing pro-Solidarity priest Jerzy Popieluszko in 1984.
South Korean opposition leader Kim Dae Jung is put under house arrest in Seoul as he returns from exile in the US Feb. 8. The ruling party retains majority in Feb. 12 elections.
Jordan's King Hussein and PLO chief Yasser Arafat sign accord Feb. 11 to jointly negotiate peace with Israel.
Kidnapped American reporter Jeremy Levin escapes Feb. 14 after being held by Islamic extremists in Lebanon for 11 months. Israel begins first phase of pullout from southern Lebanon Feb. 16.
Soviets sign agreement with International Atomic Energy Agency Feb. 21, permiting on-site inspection of some civilian nuclear power plants.
Pakistan holds parliamentary elections Feb. 25, in which opposition parties are not allowed to participate. MARCH
Bangladesh reimposes martial law March 1.
Uruguay's civilian President, Julio Mar'ia Sanguin- etti, takes office March 1.
Britain's coal miners' strike ends March 3 after nearly a year.
On the African famine front, relief officials say March 6 that at least one-third of Sudan's population faces starvation. Drought and famine refugees from Ethiopia have worsened the situation.
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes new Soviet leader March 11, day after passing of Konstantin Chernenko.
US and Soviet negotiators begin arms control talks on strategic and intermediate-range nuclear weapons, and space weapons March 12.
Dramatic increase in South African unrest as 40,000 black students boycott classes March 4 and police kill 18 blacks during funeral March 21.
Ten to become 12 as Common Market votes March 29 to allow Spain and Portugal to join. APRIL
Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry is ousted in coup led by armed forces chief Gen. Abdel Rahman Swareddahab April 6.
Freeze on Soviet deployment of intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe is announced by Gorbachev April 7.
Japan's large trade surplus prompts Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone to call on all Japanese to buy ``$100 in foreign goods'' to solve trade crisis with the US. Government approves measures to lower import barriers Apr. 9.
Albania's ruler of 40 years, Enver Hoxha, dies April 11; succeeded by Ramiz Alia.
Brazilian President-elect Tancredo Neves dies April 21 without ever taking office. Vice-President Jos'e Sarney becomes President.
Warsaw Pact between Soviet Union and seven East-bloc nations is extended April 26 for another 20 years.
South African military operations in Angola are revealed when a soldier captured April 28 says he was sent to Angola as part of special force. MAY
International aid officials in Ethiopia report May 1 that the government forced 56,000 famine refugees out of an emergency feeding center at Ibnet in the past week. Some 35,000 are allowed to return May 7.
Sikh extremist bombings and attacks May 10, kill 45 and wound 150 in north India.
Sri Lankan government says Tamil separatist guerrillas killed at least 145 civilians in Anuradhapura May 13.
Israel releases 1,150 Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners in Geneva May 20, in exchange for three Israeli soldiers held by Palestinian guerrillas.
Bangladesh battered by cyclonic storm and tidal wave May 25. Officials estimate final death toll at 10,000.
Papal plot trial begins in Rome May 27. Five Turks and three Bulgarians are charged with plotting to assassinate Pope John Paul II in 1981.
Car bomb attacks and Shiite-Palestinian fighting through the month take heavy toll in Lebanon. American David Jacobsen is kidnapped in Beirut May 28. JUNE
Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou's Socialist Party wins June 2 elections.
Italy and the Vatican ratify a treaty separating Roman Catholic Church from the state June 3.
Israel announces completion of troop withdrawal from southern Lebanon June 6, leaving a few hundred troops in area as observers. Ameri- can Thomas Sutherland is kidnapped in Beirut June 9.
Shiite Muslim gunmen hijack Trans World Airlines jet flying from Athens to Rome June 14. Hijackers say they belong to Islamic Jihad, and demand that Israel release 766 Lebanese prisoners. After allowing all women and non-American males to leave, hijackers kill a US Navy diver on board in Beirut. Shiite leader Nabih Berri takes responsibility for remaining 39 US hostages. On June 24, Israel releases 31 Lebanese prisoners, but says move is not tied to hijackers' demands. On June 30, hijackers re lease all the remaining hostages.
South Africa installs new, multiracial government in Namibia June 17, which will have limited autonomy.
Leftist guerrillas in El Salvador kill 13 people -- including four US Marines and two US businessmen -- at a caf'e in San Salvador June 19.
An Air India passenger jet crashes off Irish coast June 23, killing all 329 people on board; Indian officials believe a bomb caused the crash, and a radical Sikh student group claims responsibility. JULY
Major shake up in ruling Soviet hierarchy, installs Eduard A. Shevardnadze as foreign minister July 2, in place of Andrei Gromyko, who becomes President. On July 30, Gorbachev announces a moratorium to begin Aug. 6 on Soviet testing of nuclear weapons until the end of 1985.
Zimbabwe's first elections since 1980 give Prime Minister Robert Mugabe's party large majority July 6.
Vietnam will return remains of 26 Americans killed in the Vietnam War and conclude search for missing soldiers in two years, the State Department says July 7.
Mexico's ruling party wins majority of seats in July 7 parliamentary elections. Government cuts oil prices by $1.24 per barrel July 10.
Bomb explosion on Greenpeace ship in New Zealand July 10 kills one photographer. Two French citizens, traveling under assumed identities, are arrested and charged with the bombing.
Live Aid benefit concert for African famine victims, held in London and Philiadelphia July 13, nets more than $50 million.
South African government imposes state of emergency in 36 districts July 21. On July 31, mass funerals for blacks in these areas are banned.
Indian government and Sikhs agitating for autonomy reach accord announced July 24. Two militant Sikh groups reject the proposal.
OPEC members vote to cut oil prices slightly July 25; heavy crude will be 50 cents less per barrel.
Forum '85, conference on UN Decade for Women in Nairobi, Kenya, ends July 29. The 2,100 delegates unanimously adopt a ``Forward Looking Strategies'' document.
Coup in Uganda installs Lt. Gen. Tito Okello in power July 29, two days after President Milton Obote is deposed.
President Reagan and Chinese President Li Xiannian agree July 23 on sale of nonmilitary nuclear technology to China.
Peru's new President Alan Garc'ia P'erez takes over July 28, announces Peru will limit payments on its $14 billion foreign debt to 10 percent of annual export earnings. AUGUST
Bolivia inaugurates new President Victor Paz Estenssoro Aug. 6.
Two Americans killed outside US base in West Germany, Aug. 8. Red Army Faction claims responsibility for bombing that injured 20.
Airline accidents take high toll. Japan Airlines Boeing 747 crashes with 524 on board Aug. 12. Four survivors rescued. Aug. 22, British charter aircraft bursts into flames at Manchester Airport, kills 54.
Retaliatory violence rocks Beirut. Car bomb Aug. 17 kills 50 in Christian east Beirut; two days later, bomb in Muslim west Beirut kill 29, wounds 82.
Moderate Sikh leader, Harchand Singh Longowal, is assassinated Aug. 20 by extremists who oppose his pact with Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
Defection to East Germany of top-ranking West German intelligence officer, Hans Joachim Tiedge, Aug. 23 imperils Western espionage operations.
Gen. Muhammadu Buhari, Nigeria's leader, overthrown Aug. 27 by Maj. Gen. Ibrahim Babangida.
South African rand plunges to lowest level ever and Pretoria halts trading in stock and currency markets Aug. 28. SEPTEMBER
Unsuccessful military coup is staged in Thailand, Sept 9th.
Inner city riots erupt in Birmingham, England, Sept. 9. Officials debate whether racism or high unemployment prompted the violence.
Leftist rebels kidnap Salvadorean President's daughter Sept. 10th, demand that Jos'e Napole'on Duarte free 34 jailed rebels. His daughter is freed Oct. 24 after 22 prisoners are released and 96 injured rebels sent out of country for treatment.
South Africa's President Pieter Botha proposes restoring citizenship to 6 million black residents of ``independent'' homelands Sept. 11.
Chinese leadership undergoes change, as 74 party officials retire Sept. 16, and are replaced by 71 younger technocrats Sept. 24.
British-Soviet relations soured by tit-for-tat expulsions of alleged spies Sept. 12 to 18. Each side expels 31 people.
Iraq steps up attacks on Iranian targets, launching a bombing blitz on Kharg Island oil terminal in mid-September.
Two major earthquakes devastate parts of Mexico City and three states. 2,000 feared killed by the Sept. 19-20 quakes. Relief agencies provide aid to thousands of homeless.
French leader admits French agents involved in July bombing of Greenpeace ship Sept. 20. Defense Minister and head of French intelligence services are replaced.
One hundred North and South Koreans are reunited Sept. 20 in exchange arranged by Red Cross.
Elections in India's troubled Punjab state give majority to Sikh mainstream Akali Dal Party Sept. 25.
Panamanian President Nicol'as Ardito Barletta forced to resign by Army on Sept. 27. Replaced by Eric Arturo Delvalle. OCTOBER
Israeli jets attack PLO headquarters in Tunis Oct.1; more than 70 die; White House calls attack legitimate.
Kidnapped Soviet attach'e slain in Beirut Oct 2. Three other Soviet diplomats kidnapped with him (Sept. 30) released Oct. 30.
Palestinian hijacking of Italian ship Oct. 7 shakes US, Egypt, and Italy. Hijackers surrender to Egypt Oct. 9 after killing one US passenger. Next day, US jets intercept Egyptian airliner carrying hijackers out of country. Italian government divided by furor over allowing Muhammad Abbas, suspected mastermind of the hijacking, to leave country. Italy puts four hijackers on trial.
The United Nations' 40th anniversary is celebrated in New York City Oct. 24.
Argentina imposes state of siege Oct. 26, to allow government to combat violence attributed to rightists.
Nine Impressionist paintings, including works by Renoir and Monet, are stolen from Paris museum Oct. 27. NOVEMBER
South Africa imposes sweeping press restrictions Nov. 2, barring television crews, photographers, and radio reporters from areas affected by emergency decree.
Two French secret agents plead guilty to manslaughter at New Zealand trial Nov. 3 on Greenpeace ship sinking.
Independent Africa's longest ruling leader retires. Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere steps down Nov. 5.
Philippine elections will be held early in 1986, President Ferdinand Marcos announces Nov. 3. The opposition picks Corazon Aquino as its candidate on Nov. 30.
Terry Waite, special envoy of Archbishop of Canterbury, travels to Beirut to seek release of four American hostages who are held by Shiites.
Nobel Peace Prize is awarded Nov. 11 to International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, group founded in 1980 by Soviet and American doctors.
Volcano erupts in Colombia Nov. 13, touching off mud- slides and floods killing nearly 26,000 people and burying town of Armero. Government and aid agencies launch massive relief campaign.
British and Irish leaders reach accord Nov. 15 that gives government of Ireland an advisory role in policies regarding Northern Ireland.
President Reagan and Soviet leader Gorbachev meet for first time in historic summit at Geneva Nov.19-20.
Israeli-US relations sour over Nov. 21 arrest of American citizen Jonathan Jay Pollard on charges of spying for Israel.
Palestinians hijack Egyptian plane to Malta Nov. 23, killing two aboard; 58 more die when Egyptian commandos storm plane next day.
Special synod of Roman Catholic bishops opens in Rome Nov. 24.
Hondurans elect Jos'e Azcona Hoyo as new President Nov. 24. DECEMBER
Five former Argentine military leaders are convicted of human rights violations Dec.9 after eight-month trial.
Guatemalans elect first civilian president in 30 years, as Marco Vinicio Cerezo Ar'evalo wins runoff vote Dec. 8.
Filipino Gen. Ver reinstated as chief of staff after being found not guilty Dec. 1 of the 1983 Aquino assassination. On Dec. 19, court validates early elections.
Soviet dissident Yelena Bonner, wife of Andrei Sakharov, is allowed to leave Soviet Union Dec. 2 to seek medical treatment in the West.
South African prosecutors drop treason charges against 12 prominent government oppponents Dec. 9.
Rain, improved harvests in Africa may enable several countries to produce enough food for their people next year, UN official says Dec. 17. But, $1 billion still needed in drought-related assistance.
Afghan guerrillas continue to fight. Dec. 27 marks six years of Soviet occupation. Indirect Afghan-Pakistani talks earlier this month failed to resolve issue of Soviet troop withdrawal.
Palestinian terrorists attack Israeli airline counters at Rome and Vienna airports Dec. 27. Eighteen people, including four terrorists, killed in the grenade and gun attacks.