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Nobel Prizes awarded in physics, chemistry

Two nuclear physicists, Italian Carlo Rubbia, a professor at Harvard University, and Simon Van der Meer of the Netherlands, were named winners of the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physics Wednesday for their research into the basic forces of nature. Dr. Rubbia headed a team that used a 2,000-ton atom-smashing machine invented by Dr. Van der Meer to produce clear evidence of the subatomic W particle, sought for 40 years and believed to carry the ''weak force,'' one of the four fundamental natural forces in the universe.

Biochemist R. Bruce Merrifield of Rockefeller University in New York was named the winner of the 1984 Nobel Chemistry Prize yesterday for his work in the development of new drugs and for gene technology.

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