Poland's Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski, in an exclusive interview here, has voiced hopes for a return to normal relations with the United States. He added his cautious belief that ''realistic'' American thinking must ''sooner or later'' prevail to help bring this about.
''It was not we who caused such an abrupt deterioration of relations,'' he said Wednesday. ''It is not because of our intentions and acts that they have fallen to such a low level.''
The responsibility, he said, rested with the US government. Washington's restrictions on Poland, enacted after martial law was imposed here in 1981, had inflicted and ''continues to inflict'' considerable harm on this country and its people.
(In a development since the interview, it now appears the US and Poland are moving toward restoring full diplomatic relations, according to an extremely well-placed Polish source. An agreement on the exchange can be expected very soon. Story, Page 15.)
The Polish prime minister was relaxed during the interview, which was held toward the end of a heavy working day. He began by apologizing courteously for his late arrival for the Monitor's appointment because official party talks with visiting Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov had lasted longer than anticipated.
Then he talked informally for two hours, covering the whole field of Polish affairs - from attitudes toward the US and the West in general to the state of the Polish economy, from questions of church-state relations to the new trade unions and problems of Polish youth.
He had already given written answers to questions touching on these subjects. Now he elaborated at length, speaking in quiet tones with an occasional touch of humor, but the interview was mostly a methodical recital of the facts as he sees them.
He spoke bitterly several times of what he regards as Western ''double standards'' toward Poland. He believes the Reagan administration has used his country as an ''instrument'' of American policy against the Soviet Union, and that it sees Poland as a country to be ''punished'' because of its leaders' resort to martial law to meet its 1981 crisis.
He commented bluntly that this policy had failed and hinted the Reagan administration was beginning to realize it. Notably, however, there was little rhetoric throughout all that he said. If anything, his tone was mildly conciliatory.
Poland is ready to normalize relations, he said, and would gladly be convinced that the US had changed its intentions if Washington created ''meaningful and measurable'' conditions to achieve that.
''We feel traditional, friendly sentiments toward the great American people, '' the prime minister said.
There was little new in all this. But his awareness of the importance to Poland of a restored relationship with the US came through, despite a disavowal of any economic ''dependence,'' and a confident claim that East-bloc allies would help Poland, should a new grain deficiency, for example, arise from the winter drought.
But any first move, he insisted, must come from the US. Such moves might include lifting sanctions, restoring Poland's ''most favored nation'' treatment in trade, and ending American opposition to Poland's membership in the International Monetary Fund. Such membership, a vital step for Poland, was getting under way when martial law was declared in 1981.