Peace Prize Lech Walesa was recognized for his work in organizing and leading the Polish independent trade union, Solidarity, by peaceful means. Solidarity, the first free labor union in Eastern Europe, was established in 1980 and banned in October 1982. Prize for literature
English writer William Golding, author of such novels as ''Lord of the Flies, '' ''The Inheritors,'' and ''The Spire,'' has also written numerous short stories and plays. The Nobel committee said: ''The perspicuity of (his) realistic
narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth illuminate the human condition in the world of today.'' Prize for physics
Two American astrophysicists, Subra-hmanyan Chandrasek-har of the University of Chicago and William Fowler of the California Institute of Technology, were jointly recognized for their discoveries about the life cycle of stars. Chandrasekhar began his work in 1929, and went on to determine the rules that govern the collapse of stars. His research led to the concept of black holes and neutron stars. Fowler was a leader in developing the generally accepted theory for syntheses of the heavier elements in supernovas. Prize for chemistry
A pioneer in modern organic chemistry, Henry Taube of Stanford University was selected for ''his work in the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes.'' Prize for medicine
Barbara McClintock, a Long Island geneticist whose PhD is in botany from Cornell, received this award for her discovery of mobile genetic elements in plants, which she theorized more than 30 years ago. The elements became apparent only within the last 10 years. Nobel Memorial Prize for economics
Gerard Debreu of the University of California, Berkeley was singled out for demonstrating mathematical proof of Adam Smith's ''theory of general equilibrium.'' This theory states that prices and supply and demand tend toward a balance within a free-market economy. The World Bank and other agencies use computer models based on Debreau's work for analyzing economic trends.